The Committee on Taxonomy, chaired by Patricia Rosel, produced the first official Society for Marine Mammalogy list of marine mammal species and subspecies in 2010. Consensus on some issues has not been possible; this is reflected in the footnotes. The list is updated at least annually.
The current version was updated in October 2019. This list can be cited as follows: “Committee on Taxonomy. 2019. List of marine mammal species and subspecies. Society for Marine Mammalogy, www.marinemammalscience.org, consulted on [date].”
This list includes living and recently extinct (within historical times) species and subspecies. It is meant to reflect prevailing usage and recent revisions published in the peer-reviewed literature. Classification and scientific names follow Rice (1998), with adjustments reflecting more recent literature. Author(s) and year of description of each taxon follow the Latin (scientific) species name; when these are enclosed in parentheses, the taxon was originally described in a different genus.
The Committee annually considers and evaluates new, peer-reviewed literature that proposes taxonomic changes. The Committee’s focus is on alpha taxonomy (describing and naming taxa) and beta taxonomy primarily at lower levels of the hierarchy (subspecies, species and genera), although it may evaluate issues at higher levels if deemed necessary. Proposals for new, taxonomically distinct taxa require a formal, peer-reviewed study and should provide robust evidence that some subspecies or species criterion was met. For review of species concepts, see Reeves et al. (2004), Orr and Coyne (2004), de Queiroz (2007), Perrin (2009) and Taylor et al. (2017 a,b). Nomenclatural papers that propose new names are to be registered with ZooBank and publications should include required information including designation of holotype or syntype specimen(s), identification of the repository of the specimen(s), and explicit identification of the taxon as new by inclusion of a term such as “ssp. nov.”, “new species”, etc. The Committee recommends authors acquaint themselves with the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN 1999) and supply the information required under the Code when proposing new species or subspecies.
The Committee omits some described species and subspecies because of concern about their biological distinctness; reservations are given in the narrative below. In addition, published proposals for taxonomically distinct units that do not provide names and instead refer simply to ‘un-named subspecies’ or ‘un-named species’ are not included in the official list but are provided here. Authors are encouraged to provide formal descriptions following ICZN rules based on robust data showing an appropriate subspecies or species criterion is met.
Common names are arbitrary and change with time and place; one or two frequently used names in English and/or a range language are given here. Additional English common names and common names in French, Spanish, Russian and other languages are available at www.marinespecies.org/cetacea/. Species are listed in alphabetical order within families.
Corrections and comments should be directed to the Committee on Taxonomy (firstname.lastname@example.org). Divergent opinions by members of the Committee on particular taxonomic questions are given in the footnotes.
List of Marine Mammal Species and Subspecies
Ursus maritimus Phipps, 1774. Polar bear
Enhydra lutris (Linnaeus, 1758). Sea otter
E. l. kenyoni Wilson, 1991. Eastern sea otter
E. l. lutris (Linnaeus, 1758). Western sea otter
E. l. nereis (Merriam, 1904). Southern sea otter
Lontra felina (Molina, 1782). Chungungo, marine otter
Neovison macrodon (Prentis, 1903). Sea mink (extinct)
PINNIPEDIA (eared seals, sea lions, walrus, earless seals; 35 species, of which 2 extinct)
Family Otariidae (eared seals and sea lions; 15 species, of which 1 extinct)
Arctocephalus australis (Zimmermann, 1783). South American fur seal
Arctocephalus forsteri (Lesson, 1828). Long-nosed fur seal, New Zealand fur seal
Arctocephalus galapagoensis Heller, 1904. Galapagos fur seal
Arctocephalus gazella (Peters, 1876). Antarctic fur seal
Arctocephalus philippii (Peters, 1866). Juan Fernandez fur seal
A. p. philippii (Peters, 1866). Juan Fernandez fur seal
A. p. townsendi (Merriam, 1897). Guadalupe fur seal
Arctocephalus pusillus (Schreber, 1775). Cape fur seal
A. p. pusillus (Schreber, 1775). Cape fur seal
A. p. doriferus Wood Jones, 1925. Australian fur seal
Arctocephalus tropicalis (Gray, 1872). Subantarctic fur seal
Callorhinus ursinus (Linnaeus, 1758). Northern fur seal
Eumetopias jubatus (Schreber, 1776). Steller sea lion, northern sea lion
E. j. jubatus (Schreber, 1776). Western Steller sea lion
E. j. monteriensis (Gray, 1859). Loughlin’s Steller sea lion
Neophoca cinerea (Peron, 1816). Australian sea lion
Otaria byronia (Blainville, 1820). South American sea lion
Phocarctos hookeri (Gray, 1844). New Zealand sea lion, Hooker’s sea lion
Zalophus californianus (Lesson, 1828). California sea lion
Zalophus japonicus (Peters, 1866). Japanese sea lion (extinct)
Zalophus wollebaeki Sivertsen, 1953. Galapagos sea lion
Odobenus rosmarus (Linnaeus, 1758). Walrus
O. r. divergens (Illiger, 1815). Pacific walrus
O. r. rosmarus (Linnaeus, 1758). Atlantic walrus
Family Phocidae (earless seals; 19 species, of which 1 extinct)
Cystophora cristata (Erxleben, 1777). Hooded seal
Erignathus barbatus (Erxleben, 1777). Bearded seal
E. b. barbatus (Erxleben, 1777). Atlantic bearded seal
E. b. nauticus (Pallas, 1881). Pacific bearded seal
Halichoerus grypus (Fabricius, 1791). Gray seal
H. g. grypus (Fabricius, 1791). Baltic gray seal
H. g. atlantica. Nehring, 1866. Atlantic gray seal
Histriophoca fasciata (Zimmerman, 1783). Ribbon seal
Hydrurga leptonyx (Blainville, 1820). Leopard seal
Leptonychotes weddellii (Lesson, 1826). Weddell seal
Lobodon carcinophaga (Hombron and Jacquinot, 1842). Crabeater seal
Mirounga leonina (Linnaeus, 1758). Southern elephant seal
Mirounga angustirostris (Gill, 1866). Northern elephant seal
Monachus monachus (Hermann, 1779). Mediterranean monk seal
Neomonachus tropicalis (Gray, 1850). Caribbean monk seal, West Indian monk seal (extinct)
Neomonachus schauinslandi (Matschie, 1905). Hawaiian monk seal
Ommatophoca rossii Gray, 1844. Ross seal
Pagophilus groenlandicus (Erxleben, 1777). Harp seal
Phoca vitulina Linnaeus, 1758. Harbor seal, common seal
P. v. vitulina Linnaeus, 1758. Atlantic harbor seal
P. v. mellonae Doutt, 1942. Ungava harbor seal
P. v. richardii (Gray, 1864). Pacific harbor seal
Phoca largha Pallas, 1811. Spotted seal, largha seal
Pusa hispida (Schreber, 1775). Ringed seal
P. h. hispida (Schreber, 1775). Arctic Ringed seal
P. h. botnica (Gmelin, 1788). Baltic ringed seal
P. h. ochotensis (Pallas, 1811). Okhotsk ringed seal
P. h. ladogensis (Nordquist, 1889). Lake Ladoga seal
P. h. saimensis (Nordquist, 1889). Saima seal
Pusa caspica (Gmelin, 1788). Caspian seal
Pusa sibirica (Gmelin, 1788). Baikal seal
Order CETARTIODACTYLA (artiodactyls and cetaceans)
CETACEA (cetaceans; 89 species, of which 1 possibly extinct)
MYSTICETI (baleen whales, 14 species)
Family Balaenidae (right whales, 4 species)2
Balaena mysticetus Linnaeus, 1758. Bowhead whale, Greenland whale
Eubalaena glacialis (Müller, 1776). North Atlantic right whale
Eubalaena japonica (Lacépède, 1818). North Pacific right whale
Eubalaena australis (Desmoulins, 1822). Southern right whale
Caperea marginata (Gray, 1846). Pygmy right whale
Eschrichtius robustus (Lilljeborg, 1861). Gray whale
Family Balaenopteridae (rorquals, 8 species)
Balaenoptera acutorostrata Lacépède, 1804. Common minke whale
B. a. acutorostrata Lacépède, 1804. North Atlantic minke whale
B. a. scammoni Deméré, 1986. North Pacific minke whale
Balaenoptera bonaerensis Burmeister, 1867. Antarctic minke whale
Balaenoptera borealis Lesson, 1828. Sei whale
B. b. borealis Lesson, 1828. Northern sei whale
B. b. schlegelii (Flower, 1865). Southern sei whale
Balaenoptera edeni Anderson, 1879. Bryde’s whale
B. e. brydei Olsen, 1913. Offshore Bryde’s whale
B. e. edeni Anderson, 1879. Eden’s whale
Balaenoptera musculus (Linnaeus, 1758). Blue whale
B. m. musculus (Linnaeus, 1758). Northern blue whale
B. m. intermedia Burmeister, 1871. Antarctic blue whale
B. m. indica Blyth, 1859. Northern Indian Ocean blue whale
B. m. brevicauda Ichihara, 1966. Pygmy blue whale
Balaenoptera omurai Wada, Oishi and Yamada, 2003. Omura’s whale
Balaenoptera physalus (Linnaeus, 1758). Fin whale
B. p. patachonica Burmeister, 1865. Pygmy fin whale
B. p. physalus (Linnaeus, 1758). Northern fin whale
B. p. quoyi (Fischer, 1829). Southern fin whale
Megaptera novaeangliae (Borowski, 1781). Humpback whale
M. n. australis (Lesson, 1828). Southern humpback whale
M. n. kuzira (Gray, 1850). North Pacific humpback whale
M. n. novaeangliae (Borowski, 1781). North Atlantic humpback whale
ODONTOCETI (toothed whales, dolphins and porpoises: 75 species, of which one possibly extinct)
Physeter macrocephalus Linnaeus, 1758. Sperm whale, cachalot
Kogia breviceps (Blainville, 1838). Pygmy sperm whale
Kogia sima (Owen, 1866). Dwarf sperm whale
Family Ziphiidae (beaked whales, 22 species)
Berardius arnuxii Duvernoy, 1851. Arnoux’s beaked whale
Berardius bairdii Stejneger, 1883. Baird’s beaked whale
Hyperoodon ampullatus (Forster, 1770). Northern bottlenose whale
Hyperoodon planifrons Flower, 1882. Southern bottlenose whale
Indopacetus pacificus (Longman, 1926). Longman’s beaked whale, tropical bottlenose whale
Mesoplodon bidens (Sowerby, 1804). Sowerby’s beaked whale
Mesoplodon bowdoini Andrews, 1908. Andrews’ beaked whale
Mesoplodon carlhubbsi Moore, 1963. Hubbs’ beaked whale
Mesoplodon europaeus (Gervais, 1855). Gervais’ beaked whale
Mesoplodon ginkgodens Nishiwaki and Kamiya, 1958. Ginkgo-toothed beaked whale
Mesoplodon grayi von Haast, 1876. Gray’s beaked whale
Mesoplodon hectori (Gray, 1871). Hector’s beaked whale
Mesoplodon hotaula Deraniyagala, 1963. Deraniyagala’s beaked whale
Mesoplodon layardii (Gray, 1865). Strap-toothed beaked whale, Layard’s beaked whale
Mesoplodon mirus True, 1913. True’s beaked whale
Mesoplodon perrini Dalebout, Mead, Baker, Baker and van Helden, 2002. Perrin’s beaked whale
Mesoplodon peruvianus Reyes, Mead and Van Waerebeek, 1991. Pygmy beaked whale
Mesoplodon stejnegeri True, 1885. Stejneger’s beaked whale
Mesoplodon traversii (Gray, 1874). Spade-toothed whale
Mesoplodon densirostris (Blainville, 1817). Blainville’s beaked whale
Tasmacetus shepherdi Oliver, 1937. Shepherd’s beaked whale, Tasman beaked whale
Ziphius cavirostris G. Cuvier, 1823. Cuvier’s beaked whale, goose-beaked whale
Platanista gangetica (Lebeck, 1801). South Asian river dolphin, Indian river dolphin
P. g. gangetica (Lebeck, 1801). Susu, Ganges river dolphin
P. g. minor Owen, 1853. Bhulan
Inia geoffrensis (Blainville, 1817). Amazon river dolphin
I. g. boliviensis (d’Orbigny, 1834). Bolivian bufeo
I. g. geoffrensis (Blainville, 1817). Common boto
Lipotes vexillifer Miller, 1918. Baiji, Yangtze river dolphin – possibly extinct
Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais and d’Orbigny, 1844). Franciscana, toninha.
Delphinapterus leucas (Pallas, 1776). Beluga, white whale
Monodon monoceros Linnaeus, 1758. Narwhal
Family Delphinidae (37 species)
Cephalorhynchus commersonii (Lacépède, 1804). Commerson’s dolphin
C. c. commersonii (Lacépède, 1804). Commerson’s dolphin
C. c. kerguelenensis Robineau, Goodall, Pichler and C. S. Baker, 2007. Kerguelen Islands Commerson’s dolphin
Cephalorhynchus eutropia (Gray, 1846). Chilean dolphin
Cephalorhynchus heavisidii (Gray, 1828). Heaviside’s dolphin, Haviside’s dolphin
Cephalorhynchus hectori (Van Bénéden, 1881). Hector’s dolphin
C. h. hectori (Van Bénéden, 1881). South Island Hector’s dolphin
C. h. maui A. Baker, Smith and Pichler, 2002. Māui dolphin, North Island Hector’s dolphin
Delphinus delphis Linnaeus, 1758. Common dolphin, saddleback dolphin
D. d. delphis Linnaeus, 1758. Common dolphin
D. d. bairdii Dall, 1873. Eastern North Pacific long-beaked common dolphin
D. d. ponticus Barabash, 1935. Black Sea common dolphin
D. d. tropicalis van Bree, 1971. Indo-Pacific common dolphin
Feresa attenuata Gray, 1874. Pygmy killer whale
Globicephala macrorhynchus Gray, 1846. Short-finned pilot whale
Globicephala melas (Traill, 1809). Long-finned pilot whale
G. m. edwardii (A. Smith, 1834). Southern long-finned pilot whale
G. m. melas (Traill, 1809). North Atlantic long-finned pilot whale
Grampus griseus (G. Cuvier, 1812). Risso’s dolphin, grampus
Lagenodelphis hosei Fraser, 1956. Fraser’s dolphin
Lagenorhynchus acutus (Gray, 1828). Atlantic white-sided dolphin
Lagenorhynchus albirostris (Gray, 1846). White-beaked dolphin
Lagenorhynchus australis (Peale, 1848). Peale’s dolphin
Lagenorhynchus cruciger (Quoy and Gaimard, 1824). Hourglass dolphin
Lagenorhynchus obliquidens Gill, 1865. Pacific white-sided dolphin
Lagenorhynchus obscurus (Gray, 1828). Dusky dolphin
L. o. fitzroyi (Waterhouse, 1838). Fitzroy’s dolphin
L. o. obscurus (Gray, 1828). African dusky dolphin
L. o. posidonia (Philippi, 1893). Peruvian/Chilean dusky dolphin
Lissodelphis borealis (Peale, 1848). Northern right-whale dolphin
Lissodelphis peronii (Lacépède, 1804). Southern right-whale dolphin
Orcaella brevirostris (Owen in Gray, 1866). Irrawaddy dolphin, pesut
Orcaella heinsohni Beasley, Robertson and Arnold, 2005. Australian snubfin dolphin
Orcinus orca (Linnaeus, 1758). Killer whale, orca
Peponocephala electra (Gray, 1846). Melon-headed whale, Electra dolphin
Pseudorca crassidens (Owen, 1846). False killer whale
Sousa teuszii (Kükenthal, 1892). Atlantic humpback dolphin
Sousa chinensis (Osbeck, 1765). Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin
S. c. chinensis (Osbeck, 1765). Chinese humpback dolphin
S. c. taiwanensis Wang, Yang and Hung, 2015. Taiwanese humpback dolphin
Sousa plumbea (G. Cuvier, 1829). Indian Ocean humpback dolphin
Sousa sahulensis Jefferson and Rosenbaum, 2014. Australian humpback dolphin, Sahul dolphin
Sotalia fluviatilis (Gervais and Deville in Gervais, 1853). Tucuxi
Sotalia guianensis (P.J. Van Bénedén, 1864). Guiana dolphin, costero
Stenella attenuata (Gray, 1846). Pantropical spotted dolphin
S. a. attenuata (Gray, 1846). Offshore pantropical spotted dolphin
S. a. graffmani (Lönnberg, 1934). Coastal pantropical spotted dolphin
Stenella clymene (Gray, 1850). Clymene dolphin
Stenella coeruleoalba (Meyen, 1833). Striped dolphin
Stenella frontalis (G. Cuvier, 1829). Atlantic spotted dolphin
Stenella longirostris (Gray, 1828). Spinner dolphin
S. l. centroamericana Perrin, 1990. Central American spinner dolphin
S. l. longirostris (Gray, 1828). Gray’s spinner dolphin
S. l. orientalis Perrin, 1990. Eastern spinner dolphin
S. l. roseiventris (Wagner, 1846). Dwarf spinner dolphin
Steno bredanensis (Lesson, 1828). Rough-toothed dolphin
Tursiops aduncus (Ehrenberg, 1833). Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin
Tursiops truncatus (Montagu, 1821). Common bottlenose dolphin
T. t. ponticus Barabash-Nikiforov, 1940. Black Sea bottlenose dolphin
T. t. truncatus (Montagu, 1821). Common bottlenose dolphin
T. t. gephyreus Lahille, 1908. Lahille’s bottlenose dolphin
Family Phocoenidae (porpoises, 7 species)
Neophocaena phocaenoides (G. Cuvier, 1829). Indo-Pacific finless porpoise
Neophocaena asiaeorientalis (Pilleri and Gihr, 1972). Narrow-ridged finless porpoise
N. a. asiaeorientalis (Pilleri and Gihr, 1972). Yangtze finless porpoise
N. a. sunameri Pilleri and Gihr, 1975. East Asian finless porpoise, sunameri
Phocoena dioptrica Lahille, 1912. Spectacled porpoise
Phocoena phocoena (Linnaeus, 1758). Harbor porpoise
P. p. phocoena (Linnaeus, 1758). Atlantic harbor porpoise
P. p. vomerina (Gill, 1865). Pacific harbor porpoise
P. p. relicta Abel, 1905. Black Sea harbor porpoise
Phocoena sinus Norris and McFarland, 1958. Vaquita, Gulf of California harbor porpoise
Phocoena spinipinnis Burmeister, 1865. Burmeister’s porpoise
Phocoenoides dalli (True, 1885). Dall’s porpoise, Dall porpoise
P. d. dalli (True, 1885). dalli-type Dall’s porpoise
P. d. truei Andrews, 1911. truei-type Dall’s porpoise
ORDER SIRENIA (sirenians, 5 species, of which 1 extinct)
Trichechus inunguis (Natterer, 1883). Amazonian manatee
Trichechus manatus Linnaeus, 1758. West Indian manatee
T. m. latirostris (Harlan, 1824). Florida manatee
T. m. manatus Linnaeus, 1758. Antillean manatee
Trichechus senegalensis Link, 1795. West African manatee, African manatee
Dugong dugon (Müller, 1776). Dugong
Hydrodamalis gigas (Zimmerman, 1780). Steller’s sea cow – extinct
Footnotes (dissenting opinions):
1 Use of Order Cetartiodactyla (artiodactyls and cetaceans) is favored by most evolutionary mammalogists working with molecular data. Some others, including many marine mammalogists and paleontologists, favor retention of Order Cetacea in the interest of taxonomic stability, despite rendering the retained Order Artiodactyla paraphyletic.
2 (from D. Rice) Baker et al. (2003) hold that there is no evidence that would support the classification of the right whales as more than a single biological species. [The three species are here recognized as phylogenetic species.]
3 (from T. Jefferson) The List should retain the eastern North Pacific (ENP) long-beaked common dolphin as a separate species of Delphinus, D. bairdii (as in Banks and Brownell 1969). The evidence for species status is published and is considerable, especially the molecular differences. Notwithstanding issues related to poor sampling from areas of potential sympatry further south, the balance of the evidence seems to support a lack of interbreeding throughout a very large region of overlap, along with clear ecological differences. In this view, the error by Heyning and Perrin (1994) was not in splitting out the ENP long-beaked common dolphins as a distinct species, but in assuming that the name D. capensis applied there and that all long-beaked populations of Delphinus belonged to D. capensis.
Narrative on Taxonomy
Based on molecular and morphological data, the cetaceans fall firmly within the artiodactyl clade (Geisler and Uhen, 2005), and therefore we include them in the order Cetartiodactyla, with Cetacea, Mysticeti and Odontoceti provisionally as unranked taxa (recognizing that the classification within Cetartiodactyla remains partially unresolved — e.g., see Spaulding et al. 2009, Price et al. 2005; Agnarsson and May-Collado, 2008).1 Below the rank of order, we list only families, genera, species and subspecies, omitting superfamilies, subfamilies and taxa of other ranks. Consistent with the use of Cetacea as an un-ranked unit, we also include the un-ranked taxon Pinnipedia. Morphological (Wyss and Flynn, 1993; Berta and Wyss, 1994) and molecular (Higdon et al. 2007; Fulton and Strobeck, 2010, Nyakatura and Bininda-Emonds 2012) analyses provide strong support for pinniped monophyly and hence inclusion of Pinnipedia as an un-ranked taxonomic unit. However, there is continued debate on this subject as Koretsky et al. (2016) argue the case for a diphyletic origin for pinnipeds.
For pinnipeds, we previously followed Berta and Churchill (2012). To avoid issues of paraphyly, these authors proposed that, based on molecular and morphological data, the genus Arctocephalus be limited to Arctocephalus pusillus, the type species of the genus Arctocephalus, and transferred the remaining ‘Arctocephalus’ species (i.e., A. australis, A. galapagoensis, A. gazella, A. philippii and A. tropicalis) to Arctophoca Peters, 1866. However, Nyakatura and Bininda-Emonds (2012) compiled a new supertree of the Carnivora and concluded that this usage of Arctophoca may be premature because of remaining uncertainty about phylogenetic relationships, and we return provisionally to use of Arctocephalus for all the southern fur seals.
Three subspecies of A. australis were proposed by Berta and Churchill (2012) and formerly listed here: A. a. australis, A. a. forsteri and A. a. gracilis. However, Oliveira and Brownell (2014) synonymized A. a. gracilis with A. a. australis. The super-tree analysis by Nyakatura and Bininda-Emonds (2012) accords with the phylogenetic analysis of Higdon et al. (2007), suggesting that the New Zealand fur seal should be recognized as a full species, A. forsteri. Two subspecies of A. philippii are thought to be biologically distinct: A. p. philippii and A. p. townsendi, although small sample sizes and a small number of genes sampled are concerns. Two subspecies of Eumetopias are supported largely on molecular genetic data, which is also the case for recognition of California, Japanese and Galapagos sea lions as separate species. Brunner (2004) advised use of Otaria byronia (Blainville, 1820) over O. flavescens (Shaw, 1800). See Webber (2014) for summary of why O. flavescens is a nomen dubium and should not be used under the provisions of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN 1999). However, many South American scientists continue to use O. flavescens.
Lindqvist et al. (2009) concluded that a purported third subspecies of the walrus Odobenus rosmarus laptevi is not warranted.
Recent molecular genetic analyses indicate that Phoca vitulina concolor is paraphyletic and this along with lack of morphological differentiation suggests that the western Atlantic subspecies is not supportable; P. v. vitulina is considered here to apply to all Atlantic harbor seals. Within the North Pacific, until the subspecies limits of various populations are assessed, only a single subspecies is recognized, Phoca vitulina richardii. Placement of the ringed seal, Caspian seal and Baikal seal has alternated between the genera Phoca and Pusa. We accept Rice’s (1998) use of Pusa as the correct classification. Scheel et al. (2014) found the Caribbean and Hawaiian monks to be more closely related molecularly and morphologically to each other than either is to the Mediterranean monk seal and created the new genus Neomonachus for the two species.
The long-lost holotype skull of the gray seal Halichoerus grypus has been rediscovered and shown by DNA analysis to hail from the Baltic rather than from Greenland as previously thought (Olsen et al. 2016). Consequently, the nominate subspecies H. g. grypus is the Baltic gray seal, H. g. macrorhynchus falls into synonymy, and the authors have resurrected H. g. atlantica to apply to the Atlantic subspecies.
Polar Bears and Otters
Derocher and Stirling (1998) argued convincingly that patterns of variation in the polar bear do not support recognition of subspecies.
The use of Lontra rather than Lutra for the marine otter follows Larivière (1998) in recognizing the otters of North and South America as a monophyletic taxon distinct from the otters of Eurasia.
In the mysticete cetaceans, molecular evidence strongly supports the recognition of three separate phylogenetic species of right whales (Rosenbaum et al. 2000; Gaines et al. 2005). In addition, the genus Eubalaena (rather than Balaena as in Rice, 1998) is retained for the right whales as recommended by the Scientific Committee of the International Whaling Commission (IWC, 2001).
New fossil evidence suggests that Caperea marginata may be a member of the family Cetotheriidae (Fordyce and Marx 2012; Marx and Fordyce 2015; Marx and Fordyce 2016). Neobalaenidae is retained here provisionally.
Jackson et al. (2014) have recognized three subspecies of the humpback whale based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA relationships and distribution: Megaptera novaeangliae kuzira (North Pacific), M. n. novaeangliae (North Atlantic) and M. n. australis (Southern Hemisphere).
All Bryde’s whales are provisionally considered to comprise a single species, Balaenoptera edeni, following the usage of the IWC (IWC 2002, 2008), Kato and Perrin (2009), and Kershaw et al. (2013). However, Luksenburg et al. (2015) accepted two species. Some workers recognize B. edeni as including only the small-form coastal Bryde’s whales of the western Pacific and Indian Oceans, using B. brydei for the globally distributed larger more oceanic form (Sasaki et al. 2006). Kato and Perrin (2009) and Kershaw et al. (2013) considered these more likely to be distinct at the subspecific level (although arguably at the species level), and they are included here provisionally as such.
Balaenoptera omurai was described by Wada et al. (2003). It was previously confounded with the Bryde’s whale and has been confirmed as having a separate and ancient lineage (Sasaki et al. 2006).
Clarke (2004) proposed recognition of a pygmy form of the fin whale as a subspecies, based on distribution, size and coloration. He resurrected the synonym patachonica Burmeister, 1865 to apply to the subspecies: B. physalus patachonica.
In the odontocetes, Mesoplodon traversii (spade-toothed whale) has been recognized as the senior synonym for M. bahamondi (Bahamonde’s beaked whale) (van Helden et al. 2002). The first complete specimen was recently described from a stranding on the North Island of New Zealand (Thompson et al. 2012). Mesoplodon perrini was described by Dalebout et al. (2002). Dalebout et al. (2014) resurrected Mesoplodon hotaula Deraniyagala, 1963, a species closely similar to M. ginkgodens.
We recognize one species of Inia with two subspecies: I. geoffrensis geoffrensis (Blainville, 1817) and I. g. boliviensis (d’ Orbigny, 1834). I. g. boliviensis is found in the Bolivian Amazon basin and overlaps with other Inia in all morphological characters (da Silva, 1994; Ruiz-García et al. 2006). However, molecular genetic evidence from mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear introns (Banguera-Hinestroza et al. 2002; Ruiz-García et al. 2008) suggested these two subspecies are on separate evolutionary trajectories and deserve recognition as phylogenetic species. Hollatz et al. (2011) estimated that I. g. boliviensis has been reproductively isolated for 3.2 million years. However, these studies used geographically disparate samples, with a significant gap in sampling of Inia habitat between the Teotonio Rapids, hypothesized to be the barrier to gene flow for I. g. boliviensis, and the samples used to represent I. g. geoffrensis. Gravena et al. (2014), with much better sampling of the Madeira River system, including samples from immediately above and below the Teotonio Rapids, found that in fact these rapids did not appear to obstruct gene flow on an evolutionary scale. Thus, the conclusion that the Bolivian Inia above the Teotonio Rapids possessed unique mtDNA (a major line of evidence for recognizing species-level distinctness of I. boliviensis) was not supported by more extensive sampling (i.e., the initial appearance of separation was an artifact of poor sampling). Therefore, only the subspecies Inia geoffrensis boliviensis is retained, although given the newer evidence for a lack of isolation of the dolphins above the Teotonio Rapids (Gravena et al. 2014) and the lack of robust sampling, the strength for subspecies status is weakened. Another new species, Inia araguaiaensis, was described by Hrbek et al. (2014) from the Araguaia River, which is not connected to the Amazon and Siciliano et al. (2016) extended the known range of I. araguaiaensis further north to Marajó Bay, Brazil through mtDNA analysis of three stranded specimens. Hrbek et al. (2014) only examined samples from two extremes of the distribution of Inia, so is it unclear if the molecular differences observed represented real species-level separation or were due to sampling from two locations separated by a large distance. Diagnostic osteological differences were also reported (Hrbek et al. 2014). However, because this study was based on the examination of very few specimens (only 2 for the new species and only 9 for I. geoffrensis) and did not account for effects of sexual dimorphism within the species, the authors’ conclusions are not persuasive. In light of these arguments, the species here remains unlisted provisionally. Hrbek et al. (2014) did not recognize I. g. humboldtiana. Continued research on the taxonomic status of all Inia forms is necessary.
Previous editions of this list recognized two globally distributed species of common dolphins: the short-beaked common dolphin D. delphis and the long-beaked common dolphin D. capensis as proposed by Heyning and Perrin (1994). However, evidence that D. capensis thus considered is a polyphyletic taxon has been accumulating for some time. The long-beaked condition is apparently a convergent character state induced by regional ecology. In some regions, long-beaked common dolphins are genetically more closely related to short-beaked common dolphins than to long-beaked common dolphins in other regions (e.g., see Natoli et al. 2006). Cunha et al. (2015) summarized the relevant data and analyses, along with additional molecular data and analysis, and recommended that Delphinus capensis not be further used as proposed by Heyning and Perrin (1994). That recommendation is followed here. Cunha et al. (2015) noted that because the sympatric/parapatric long-beaked and short-beaked common dolphins off California in the Eastern North Pacific (ENP) appear not to interbreed, perhaps the ENP long-beaked common dolphins might be recognized as a separate species D. bairdii Dall,1873 (as advocated by Banks and Brownell (1969) based on the long-beaked condition). However, the molecular analysis for the ENP (Rosel et al. 1994) did not include common dolphins from the contiguous regions to the south in the eastern tropical and eastern South Pacific. Pending a more complete global review and revision of the common dolphins, the long-beaked ENP form is considered here provisionally as a subspecies D. delphis bairdii following the usage of Hershkovitz (1966). Delphinus capensis Gray,1828 from South Africa remains in the synonymy of Delphinus delphis Linnaeus,1758. The long-beaked common dolphin of the Indian Ocean is retained as a subspecies D. delphis tropicalis.
Based on a combined analysis of molecular genetic and morphological data, Mendez et al. (2013) proposed recognizing four species of Sousa (the humpback dolphins): the previously here-listed S. teuszii and S. chinensis plus S. plumbea and a new un-named species from the waters of northern Australia that was originally proposed by Frère et al. (2008, 2011) based on molecular data. A drawback of the phylogenetic analyses by Mendez et al. (2013) is that there was only one sample from the area of supposed sympatry of S. plumbea and S. chinensis and very low coverage of the Indo-Malay region (n=5). The two species are listed here provisionally, pending the outcome of further analysis including more samples from those areas. The new species from Australia has been given the name Sousa sahulensis (Jefferson and Rosenbaum 2014).
The new subspecies Sousa chinensis taiwanensis was described by Wang et al. (2015).
The Burrunan dolphin Tursiops australis, recently described by Charlton-Robb et al. (2011), is not included here; its basis is questionable because of several potential problems: 1) the specimens were compared morphologically only with bottlenose dolphins from Australia; 2) despite the small sample sizes, the series overlapped in all metric characters and separation was possible only with multivariate analysis (which commonly resolves geographical forms within a species, e.g., see Perrin et al. (1999) and Perrin et al. (2011) for Stenella longirostris and Tursiops truncatus, respectively); 3) comparisons of external morphology and non-metric characters were made only with T. truncatus, to the exclusion of T. aduncus; and 4) support for important nodes in molecular trees suggesting phylogenetic separation was low. A rigorous re-evaluation of the relevant data and arguments is needed. Wickert et al. (2016) and Costa et al. (2016) examined morphological characteristics of Tursiops specimens from the western South Atlantic and recommended species and subspecies status, respectively, for the larger coastal form found in the sampled region. We provisionally recognize the subspecies T. t. gephyreus Lahille 1908, for this larger coastal form and apply the English name Lahille’s bottlenose dolphin. Improved geographic sampling and improved objectivity in hypothesis testing is needed to fully resolve the taxonomy of Tursiops in this region. In particular, further work is needed to 1) better identify the distribution of the gephyreus form, 2) compare the morphology and molecular genetics of the gephyreus form to the type specimen of T. truncatus, and 3) determine its phylogenetic relationship to coastal and offshore Tursiops in the western North Atlantic.
Recognition of the Black Sea bottlenose dolphin is now well-supported by molecular genetic data (Viaud-Martinez et al. 2008), as is the Black Sea common dolphin (Natoli et al. 2008).
Kinze (2018) proposed that the scientific name for Tursiops truncatus should be Tursiops tursio as tursio has priority over truncatus. The committee noted that resurrecting the name T. tursio for the bottlenose dolphin would upset long-standing usage and would cause considerable confusion in national and international treaties, agreements, etc. Therefore, the name T. truncatus should continue to be used for the common bottlenose dolphin to maintain stability.
The genus Lagenorhynchus is widely considered a polyphyletic taxon containing morphologically convergent species (Cipriano 1997, LeDuc et al. 1999, McGowen 2011, Banguera-Hinestroza et al. 2014, Vollmer et al. 2019). Vollmer et al. (2019) provided a comprehensive review of the relationships among members of the genus Lagenorhynchus and their relationship to Cephalorhynchus and Lissodelphis. Results continue to support the polyphyletic nature of the genus Lagenorhynchus and multiple morphological and genetic analyses indicate that L. albirostris and L. acutus are evolutionarily distinct from the other members of all three genera. Vollmer et al. (2019) recommended revision of the genus sensu Leduc et al. (1999), placing L. obscurus, L. obliquidens, L. australis and L. cruciger into the genus Sagmatias, L. acutus into the genus Leucopleurus and leaving L. albirostris in a monotypic genus Lagenorhynchus. While a majority of committee members supported the changes proposed by Vollmer et al. (2019), a 2/3 majority of voting members was not reached. Primary objection to the changes focused on remaining uncertainties in some relationships and the potential confusion that may be created if the proposed changes require further revision in the near future. At issue are 1) the conflicting support among data sets for a sister-taxa relationship between L. albirostris and L. acutus (which would obviate the need for Leucopleurus), and 2) evidence that australis and cruciger should be included in Cephalorhynchus (which would necessitate a new genus for obliquidens and obscurus, as australis is the type species for the genus Sagmatias). Therefore, the taxonomy list retains all species in Lagenorhynchus, recognizing that the current taxonomy does not reflect the evolutionary distinctiveness of L. albirostris and L. acutus. Next steps in unraveling the taxonomy of these dolphins will need to involve robust datasets that include all Lagenorhynchus and Cephalorhynchus species. Harlin-Cognato (2010) recognized L. obscurus posidonia (Peru/Chile).
It has been noted repeatedly, most recently by Perrin et al. (2013), that the delphinine genera Stenella and Tursiops are paraphyletic and that at present there is no molecular or morphological basis for satisfactory resolution of phylogenetic relationships in the subfamily. A possible solution would be to return all the species in Tursiops, Sousa, and Stenella to Delphinus, the genus in which they were first described, and place Lagenodelphis hosei there as well. However, considering that this would obscure the clear close relationship of the present Sousa species, the status quo is maintained here provisionally, pending the outcome of more definitive morphological and molecular studies. Eventually a more natural classification will emerge.
Perrin et al. (1999) established the subspecies Stenella longirostris roseiventris.
The Irrawaddy dolphin was split into O. brevirostris and O. heinsohni, the Australian snubfin dolphin (Beasley et al. 2005).
Wang et al. (2008) and Jefferson and Wang (2011) established Neophocaena asiaeorientalis as a full species distinct from the N. phocaenoides, with two subspecies. Zhou et al. (2018) examined genomic DNA sequence data and concluded that there was significant genetic differentiation between the two subspecies of N. asiaeorientalis, including evidence for genetic adaptation to the freshwater environment of the Yangtze River. The authors proposed the two subspecies of N. asiaeorientalis be elevated to species-level, the Yangtze finless porpoise, N. asiaeorientalis Pilleri and Gihr 1927, and the East Asian finless porpoise, N. sunameri Pilleri and Gihr 1972. However, there were no samples in this study from near the mouth of the Yangtze River where the marine and river subspecies could possibly be sympatric and where genetic interchange could occur. While the results of the study are consistent with recently diverged taxa, the lack of samples in the potential area of sympatry make it difficult to rule out an isolation by distance effect.
Viaud-Martinez et al. (2007) concluded based on morphological and molecular genetic evidence that Phocoena phocoena relicta is a distinct subspecies.
We list the baiji Lipotes vexillifer as “possibly extinct” in conformance with the IUCN Red List, although extinction seems a certainty.
Manatees and Dugongs
In the Sirenia, subspecies of the dugong are not currently recognized (Domning, 1996). However, no in-depth study has been undertaken to address the issue of subspecies.
Agnarsson, I. and L. J. May-Collado. 2008. The phylogeny of Cetartiodactyla: The importance of dense taxon sampling, missing data, and the remarkable promise of cytochrome b to provide reliable species-level phylogenies. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 48:964—985.
Baker, R. J., L. C. Bradley, R. D. Bradley, J. W. Dragoo, M. D., R. S. Hoffman, C. A Jones, F. Reid, D. W. Rice and C. Jones. 2003. Revised checklist of North American mammals north of Mexico, 2003. Museum of Texas Tech University Occasional Papers 229:1—24.
Banguera-Hinestroza, E., M. Cárdenas, M. Ruiz-García, M. Marmontel, E. Gaitán, R. Vázquez and F. García-Vallejo. 2002. Molecular identification of evolutionarily significant units in the Amazon river dolphin Inia sp. (Cetacea: Iniidae). Journal of Heredity 93:312—322.
Banguera-Hinestroza, E., A. Hayano, E. Crespo, and A. R. Hoelzel. 2014. Delphinid systematics and biogeography with a focus on the current genus Lagenorhynchus: multiple pathways for antitropical and trans-oceanic radiation. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 80:217—230.
Banks, R. C. and R. L. Brownell. 1969. Taxonomy of the common dolphins of the eastern Pacific Ocean. Journal of Mammalogy 50:262—271.
Beasley, I., K. M. Robertson and P. Arnold. 2005. Description of a new dolphin, the Australian snubfin dolphin Orcaella heinsohni sp. n. (Cetacea: Delphinidae). Marine Mammal Science 21:365—400.
Berta, A. 1994. New specimens of the pinnipediform Pteronarctos from the Miocene of Oregon. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology no. 78:1-33.
Berta, A. and M. Churchill. 2012. Pinniped taxonomy: Review of currently recognized species and subspecies, and evidence used for their description. Mammal Review 42:207—234.
Berta, A. and A. R. Wyss. 1994. Pinniped phylogeny. Pages 33—56 in A. Berta and T. A. Deméré (eds). Contributions in Marine Mammal Paleontology Honoring Frank C. Whitmore, Jr. Proceedings of the San Diego Society of Natural History. San Diego, California, USA.
Brunner, S. 2004. Fur seals and sea lions (Otariidae): Identification of species and taxonomic review. Systematics and Biodiversity 1:339—439.
Charlton-Robb, K., L. Gershwin, R. Thompson, J. Austin, K. Owen and S. McKechnie. 2011. A new dolphin species, the Burrunan dolphin Tursiops australis sp. Nov., endemic to southern Australian waters. PLoS ONE 6(0) e24047. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0024047.
Cipriano, F. 1997. Antitropical distributions and speciation in dolphins of the genus Lagenorhynchus: A preliminary analysis. Pages 305—316 in A. E. Dizon, S. J. Chivers and W. F. Perrin (eds). Molecular genetics of marine mammals. Society for Marine Mammalogy Special Publication 3.
Clarke, R. 2004. Pygmy fin whales. Marine Mammal Science 20:329—334.
Costa, A. P., P. E. Rosel, F. G. Daura‐Jorge and P. C. Simões‐Lopes. 2016. Offshore and coastal common bottlenose dolphins of the western South Atlantic face‐to‐face: What the skull and the spine can tell us. Marine Mammal Science 32:1433—1457.
Cunha, H. A., R. Loizaga de Castro, E. R. Secchi, E. A. Crespo, J. Lailson-Brito, A. F. Azevedo, C. Lazoski and A. M. Solé-Cava. 2015. Molecular and morphological differentiation of common dolphins (Delphinus sp.) in the southwestern Atlantic: Testing the two species hypothesis in sympatry. PLoS ONE 10(11) e0140251. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0140251.
Dalebout, M. L., J. G. Mead, C. S. Baker, A. N. Baker, and A. L. van Helden. 2002. A new species of beaked whale Mesoplodon perrini sp. n. (Cetacea: Ziphiidae) discovered through phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequences. Marine Mammal Science 18:577—608.
Dalebout, M. L, S. C. Baker, D. Steel, K. Thompson, K. M. Robertson, S. J. Chivers, W. F. Perrin, M. Goonatilake, R. C. Anderson, J. G. Mead, C. W. Potter, L. Thompson, D. Jupiter and T. K. Yamada. 2014. Resurrection of Mesoplodon hotaula Deraniyagala 1963: A new species of beaked whale in the tropical Indo-Pacific. Marine Mammal Science 30:1081—1108.
Derocher, A. E. and I. Stirling. 1998. Geographic variation in growth of polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Journal of Zoology 245:65—72.
Domning, D. 1996. Bibliography and index of the Sirenia and Desmostylia. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology 80:1—611.
Fordyce, R. E. and F. G. Marx. 2012. The pygmy right whale Caperea marginata: Last of the cetotheres. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 280:20122645.
Frère, C. H., P. Hale, L. Porter, V. G. Cockcroft and M. L. Dalebout. 2008. Phylogenetic analysis of mtDNA sequences suggests revision of humpback dolphin (Sousa spp.) taxonomy is needed. Marine and Freshwater Research 59:259—268.
Frère, C. H., J. Seddon, C. Palmer, L. Porter and G. J. Parra. 2011. Multiple lines of evidence for an Australasian geographic boundary in the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis): Population or species divergence? Conservation Genetics 12:1633—1638.
Fulton, T. L., and C. Strobeck. 2010. Multiple fossil calibrations, nuclear loci and mitochondrial genomes provide new insight into biogeography and divergence timing for true seals (Phocidae, Pinnipedia). Journal of Biogeography 37:814—829.
Gaines, C. A., M. P. Hare, S. E. Beck and H. C. Rosenbaum. 2005. Nuclear markers confirm taxonomic status and relationships among highly endangered and closely related right whale species. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 272:533—542.
Geisler, J. H. and M. D. Uhen. 2005.Phylogenetic relationships of extinct cetartiodactyls: Results of simultaneous analyses of molecular, morphological, and stratigraphic data. Journal of Mammalian Evolution 12:145—160.
Gravena, W., I.P. Farias, M.N.F. da Silva, V.M.F. da Silva and T. Hrbek. 2014. Looking into the past and the future: were the Madeira River rapids a geographical barrier to the boto (Cetacea: Iniidae)? Conservation Genetics 15:619—629.
Harlin-Cognato, A. D. 2010. The dusky dolphin’s place in the delphinid family tree. Pages 1—20 in B. Würsig and M. Würsig (eds). The dusky dolphin. Master acrobat off different shores. Academic Press, Amsterdam.
van Helden, A. L., A. N. Baker, M. L. Dalebout, J. C. Reyes, K. Van Waerebeek, and C. S. Baker. 2002. Resurrection of Mesoplodon traversii (Gray, 1874), senior synonym of M. bahamondi Reyes, Van Waerebeek, Cárdenas and Yáñez, 1995 (Cetacea: Ziphiidae). Marine Mammal Science 18:609—621.
Heyning, J. E. and W. F. Perrin. 1994. Evidence for two species of common dolphins (genus Delphinus) from the eastern North Pacific. Contributions to Science of the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles City 442:1—35.
Hershkovitz, P. 1966. Catalog of living whales. United States National Museum Bulletin 246, 259pp.
Higdon, J. W., O. R. P. Bininda-Emonds, R. M. Beck and S. H. Ferguson. 2007. Phylogeny and divergence of the pinnipeds (Carnivora, Mammalia) assessed using a multigene dataset. BMC Evolutionary Biology 7:216. doi.org/10.1186/1471-2148-7-216.
Hollatz, C., S. Torres Vilaça, R. A. F. Redondo, M. Marmontel, C. S. Baker and F. R. Santos. 2011. The Amazon River system as an ecological barrier driving genetic differentiation of the pink dolphin (Inia geoffrensis). Biological Journal of the Linnaen Society 102:812—827.
Hrbek, T., V. M. F. da Silva, N. Dutra, W. Gravena, A. R. Martin and I. P. Farias. 2014. A new species of river dolphin from Brazil or: How little do we know our biodiversity. PLoS ONE 9(1) e83623. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0083623.
International Committee on Zoological Nomenclature [ICZN]. 1999. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Fourth Edition. International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature c/o The Natural History Museum – Cromwell Road, London, United Kingdom.
International Whaling Commission. 2001. Report of the Scientific Committee. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 3, Supplement:1—75.
International Whaling Commission. 2008. Report of the Scientific Committee. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 10, Supplement: 1–406.
Jackson, J. A., D. J. Steel, P. Beerli, B. C. Congdon, C. Olavarria, M. S. Leslie, C. Pomilla, H. Rosenbaum and C. S. Baker. 2014. Global diversity and oceanic divergence of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae). Proceedings of the Royal Society B 281, 20133222:1—10.
Jefferson, T.A. and H. C. Rosenbaum. 2014. Taxonomic revision of the humpback dolphins (Sousa spp.), and description of a new species from Australia. Marine Mammal Science 30:1494—1541.
Jefferson, T. A. and J. Y. Wang. 2011. Revision of the taxonomy of finless porpoises (genus Neophocaena): The existence of two species. Journal of Marine Animals and Their Ecology 4:3—16.
Kato, H. and W. F. Perrin. 2009. Bryde’s whales Balaenoptera edeni/brydei. Pages 158—163 in W. F. Perrin, B. Würsig and J. G. M. Thewissen (eds) Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals. Academic Press, Amsterdam.
Kershaw, F., M. S. Leslie, T. Collins, R. M. Mansur, B. D. Smith, G. Minton, R. Baldwin, R. G. LeDuc, R. C. Anderson, R. L. Brownell Jr, and H. C. Rosenbaum. 2013. Population differentiation of 2 forms of Bryde’s whales in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Journal of Heredity 6:755–764.
Kinze, C. C. 2018. A case for Tursiops tursio (Gunnerus, 1768). Lutra 61:189-196
Koretsky, I. A., L. G. Barnes and S. J. Rahmat. 2016. Re-evaluation of morphological characters questions current views of pinniped origins. Vestnik Zoologii, 50:327—354.
Larivière, S. 1998. Lontra felina. Mammalian Species 575:1—5.
LeDuc, R. G., W. F. Perrin and A. E. Dizon. 1999. Phylogenetic relationships among the delphinid cetaceans based on full cytochrome b sequences. Marine Mammal Science 15:619—648.
Leduc, R. G., A. E. Dizon, M., Goto, M., L. A. Pastene, H. Kato, S. Nishiwaki and R. L. Brownell 2007. Patterns of genetic variation in southern hemisphere blue whales, and the use of assignment test to detect mixing on the feeding grounds. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 9:73—80.
Lindqvist, C., L. Bachmann, L. W. Andersen, E. W. Born, U. Arnason, K. M. Kovacs, C. Lydersen, A. V. Abramov and Ø. Wiig. 2009. The Laptev Sea walrus Odobenus rosmarus laptevi: An enigma revisited. Zoologica Scripta 38:113—127.
Luksenburg, J. A., A. Henriquez and G. Sangster. 2015. Molecular and morphological evidence for the subspecific identity of Bryde’s whales in the southern Caribbean. Marine Mammal Science 31:1568-1579.
Marx, F. G. and R. E. Fordyce. 2015. Baleen whale boom and bust: A synthesis of mysticete phylogeny, diversity and disparity. Royal Society Open Science 2: 140434. doi:10.1098/rsos.140434.
Marx, F.G. and R. E. Fordyce. 2016. A link no longer missing: New evidence for the cetotheriid affinities of Caperea. PLoS ONE 11(10) e0164059. doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0164059
McGowen, M. R. 2011. Toward the resolution of an explosive radiation—A multilocus phylogeny of oceanic dolphins (Delphinidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 60:345—357.
Mendez, M., T. A. Jefferson, S.-O. Kolokotronis, M. Krützen, G. J. Parra, T. Collins, G. Minton, R. Baldwin, P. Berggren, A. Särnblad, O. A. Amir, V. M. Peddemors, L. Karczmarski, A. Guissamulo, B. Smith, D. Sutaria, G. Amato and H. C. Rosenbaum. 2013. Integrating multiple lines of evidence to better understand the evolutionary divergence of humpback dolphins along their entire distribution range: A new dolphin species in Australian waters. Molecular Ecology 22:5936—5948.
Natoli, A., A. Cañadas, V. M. Peddemors, A. Aguilar, C. Vaquero, P. Fernandez-Piqueras et al. 2006. Phylogeography and alpha taxonomy of the common dolphin (Delphinus sp.). Journal of Evolutionary Biology19:943—954.
Natoli, A., A. Cañadas, C. Vaquero, E. Politi, P. Fernandez-Navarro and A. R. Hoelzel. 2008. Conservation genetics of the short-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) in the Mediterranean Sea and the eastern North Atlantic. Conservation Genetics 9:1479—1487.
Nyakatura, K. and O. R.P. Birinda-Emonds. 2012. Updating the evolutionary history of Carnivora (Mammalia): A new species-level supertree complete with divergence time estimates. BMC Biology 10:1—31.
Oliveira, L. R. and R. L. Brownell, Jr. 2014. Taxonomic status of two subspecies of South American fur seals: Arctocephalus australis australis vs. A. a. gracilis. Marine Mammal Science 30:1258—1263.
Olsen, M. T., A. Galatius, V. Biard, K. Gregersen and C. C. Kinze. 2016. The forgotten type specimen of the grey seal [Halichoerus grypus (Fabricius, 1791)] from the island of Amager, Denmark. Journal of the Linnean Society 2016:1—8.
Orr, H. A. and J. A. Coyne. 2004. Speciation. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Massachusetts.
Perrin, W. F. 2009. Species. Pages 1084—1087 in W. F. Perrin, B. Würsig and J. G. M. Thewissen (eds) Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals. Academic Press, Amsterdam.
Perrin, W. F., M. L. L. Dolar and D. Robineau. 1999. Spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris) of the western Pacific and Southeast Asia: Pelagic and shallow-water forms. Marine Mammal Science 15:1029—1053.
Perrin, W. F., J. L. Thieleking, W. A. Walker, F. I. Archer and K. M. Robertson. 2011. Common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in California waters: Cranial differentiation of coastal and offshore ecotypes. Marine Mammal Science 27:769—792.
Perrin, W. F., P. E. Rosel and F. Cipriano. 2013. How to contend with paraphyly in the taxonomy of the delphinine cetaceans. Marine Mammal Science 29:567—588.
Price, S. A., O. R. P. Bininda-Edmonds and J. L. Gittleman. 2005. A complete phylogeny of the whales, dolphins and even-toed hoofed mammals (Cetartiodactyla). Biological Review 80:445—473.
de Queiroz, K. 2007. Species concepts and species delineation. Systematic Biology 56:879—886.
Reeves, R. R., W. F. Perrin, B. L. Taylor, C. S. Baker and S. L. Mesnick (eds) 2004. Report of the Workshop on Shortcomings of Cetacean Taxonomy in Relation to Needs of Conservation and Management, April 30—May 2, 2004 La Jolla, California. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-363:1—94.
Rice, D. W. 1998. Marine mammals of the world. Systematics and distribution. Society for Marine Mammalogy Special Publication 4:1—231.
Rosel, P. E., A. E. Dizon and J. E. Heyning. 1994. Genetic analysis of sympatric morphotypes of common dolphins (genus Delphinus). Marine Biology 119:150—167.
Rosenbaum, H., R. L. Brownell, Jr., M. W. Brown, C. Schaeff, Y. Portway, B. N. White, S. Malik, L. A. Pastene, N. J. Patenaude, C. S. Baker, M. Goto, P. B. Best, P. J. Clapham, P. Hamilton, R. Payne, V. Rowntree, C. T. Tynan, J. L. Bannister, and R. DeSalle. 2000. World-wide genetic differentiation of Eubalaena: Questioning the number of right whale species. Molecular Ecology 9:1793—1802.
Ruiz-García, M., E. Banguera and H. Cárdenas. 2006. Morphological analysis of three Inia (Cetacea: Iniidae) populations from Colombia and Bolivia. Acta Theriologica 51:411—426.
Ruiz-García, M., S. Caballero, M. Martinez-Agüero and J. M. Shostell. 2008. Molecular differentiation among Inia geoffrensis and Inia boliviensis (Iniidae, Cetacea) by means of nuclear intron sequences. Pages 1—25 in V. T. Koven. ed., Population Genetics Research Progress Chapter 6.
Sasaki, T., M. Nikaido, S. Wada, T. K. Yamada, Y. Cao, M. Hasegawa, and N. Okada. 2006. Balaenoptera omurai is a newly discovered baleen whale that represents an ancient evolutionary lineage. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 41:40—52.
Scheel, D.-M., G. J. Slater, S.-O. Kolokontronis, C. W. Potter, D. S. Rotstein, K. Tsangaras, A. D. Greenwood and K. M. Helgen. 2014. Biogeography and taxonomy of extinct and endangered monk seals illuminated by ancient DNA and skull morphology. ZooKeys 409:1—33.
Siciliano, S., V. H. Valiati, R. Emin-Lima, A. F. Costa, J. Sartor, T. Dorneles and L. R. De Oliveira. 2016. New genetic data extend the range of river dolphins Inia in the Amazon Delta. Hydrobiologia 777:255—269.
da Silva, V. M. F. 1994. Aspects of the biology of the Amazonian dolphin genera Inia and Sotalia fluviatilis. Ph.D. thesis, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, U.K. 328 pp.
Spaulding, M., M. A. O’Leary and J. Gatesy. 2009. Relationships of Cetacea (Artiodactyla) among mammals: Increased taxon sampling alters interpretations of key fossils and character evolution. PLoS ONE 4(9) e7062. doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007062.
Taylor, B. L., F. I. Archer, K. K. Martien, P. E. Rosel, B. L. Hancock-Hanser, A. R. Lang, M. S. Leslie, S. L. Mesnick, P. A. Morin, V. L. Pease, W. F. Perrin, K. M. Robertson, K. M. Parsons, A. Viricel, N. L. Vollmer, R. R. Reeves, F. Cipriano, M. Krützen and C. S. Baker. 2017a. Guidelines and quantitative standards to improve consistency in cetacean subspecies and species delimitation relying on molecular genetic data. Marine Mammal Science 33:132—155.
Taylor B. L., W. F. Perrin, R. R. Reeves, P. E. Rosel, J. Y. Wang, F. Cipriano, C. S. Baker, R. L. Brownell Jr. 2017b. Why we should develop guidelines and quantitative standards for using molecular genetic data to delimit subspecies for data-poor organisms like cetaceans. Marine Mammal Science 33:12—26.
Thompson, K., C. S. Baker, A. van Helden, S. Paatel, C. Millar and R. Constantine. 2012. The world’s rarest whale. Current Biology 22:R905—R906.
Viaud-Martinez, M. Martinez Vergara, P. E. Gol’din, V. Ridoux, A. A. Özturk, B. Özturk, P. E. Rosel, A. Frantzis, A. Komnenou, and A. J. Bohanak. 2007. Morphological and genetic differentiation of the Black Sea harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena. Marine Ecology Progress Series 338:281—294.
Viaud-Martinez, K. A., R. L. Brownell, Jr., A. Komnenou, and A. J. Bohanak. 2008. Genetic isolation and morphological divergence of Black Sea bottlenose dolphins. Biological Conservation 141:1600—1611.
Vollmer, N. L., E. Ashe, R. L. Brownell Jr, F. Cipriano, J. G. Mead, R. R. Reeves, M. S. Soldevilla and R. Williams, R. 2019. Taxonomic revision of the dolphin genus Lagenorhynchus. Marine Mammal Science, 35: 957–1057.
Wada, S., M. Oishi and T. K. Yamada. 2003. A newly discovered species of living baleen whale. Nature 426:278—281.
Wang, J. Y., T. R. Frasier, S. C. Yang and B. N. White. 2008. Detecting recent speciation events: The case of the finless porpoise (genus Neophocaena). Heredity 101:145—155.
Wang, J. Y., S. C. Yang and S. K. Hung. 2015. Diagnosability and description of a new subspecies of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin, Sousa chinensis, (Osbeck, 1765) from the Taiwan Strait. Zoological Studies 54:36 doi.10.1186/s40555-015-0115-x.
Webber, M. S. 2014. Family Otariidae (eared seals). Pages 84—101 in D. E. Wilson and R. A. Mittermeier (eds). Handbook of the Mammals of the World. 4. Sea Mammals. Lynx Ediciones, Barcelona.
Wickert, J. C., S. M. Von Eye, L. R. Oliveira and I. B. Moreno. 2016. Revalidation of Tursiops gephyreus Lahille, 1908 (Cetartiodactyla: Delphinidae) from the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. Journal of Mammalogy 97:1728—1737.
Wyss, A. R. and J. Flynn. 1993. A phylogenetic analysis and definition of the Carnivora. Pages 32—52 in F. S. Szalay, M. J. Novacek, and M. C. McKenna (eds). Mammal Phylogeny: Placentals. Springer-Verlag, New York.
Last updated August 2019 by members of the Committee on Taxonomy:
· Patricia E. Rosel (Chair)
· Frederick I. Archer
· C. Scott Baker
· Daryl J. Boness
· Robert L. Brownell, Jr.
· Morgan Churchill
· Ana P. Costa
· Daryl P. Domning
· R. Ewan Fordyce
· Thomas A. Jefferson
· Carl Kinze
· Larissa R. Oliveira
· William F. Perrin
· John Y. Wang
· Tadasu K. Yamada