Monodon monoceros (Narwhal)

Content retrieved from Wikipedia, and managed by the Marine Mammal Science Education Committee.

Narwhal
Temporal range: Quaternary–Present
[1][2]
Diagram showing a narwhal and scuba diver from the side: the body of the whale is about three times longer than a human.
Size compared to an average human
CITES Appendix II (CITES)[4]
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Infraorder: Cetacea
Family: Monodontidae
Genus: Monodon
Linnaeus, 1758
Species:
M. monoceros
Binomial name
Monodon monoceros
Distribution of narwhal populations

The narwhal (Monodon monoceros), is a species of toothed whale, and the only member of the genus Monodon. Its closest living relative is the beluga whale, and cases of interbreeding between the two species has been recorded. It is sexually dimorphic, as adult males are larger than females and have a long single tusk that can be up to 3 m (9.8 ft). The narwhal has a mottled pigmentation, with blackish-brown markings over a white background. Instead of a dorsal fin, the narwhal possesses a shallow dorsal ridge which is thought to facilitate movement under the ice, or reduce surface area, and so heat loss. An adult narwhal is typically 3.0 to 5.5 m (9.8 to 18.0 ft) in length and 800 to 1,600 kg (1,800 to 3,500 lb) in weight. Carl Linnaeus scientifically described the species in his 1758 work Systema Naturae.

The narwhal inhabits Arctic waters, and is vulnerable to predatory attacks from polar bears, orcas and humans. Narwhals typically visit Baffin Bay between June and September. After this period, they move to the Davis Strait, a journey that spans around 1,700 km (1,100 mi), and stay there until April. Its prey mostly consists of Arctogadus glacialis, Boreogadus saida, Greenland halibut, cuttlefish, shrimp, and armhook squid. The narwhal is one of the deepest-diving marine mammals, with many individuals reaching depths of over 1,500 m (5,000 ft). Narwhals mate in the offshore pack ice in April or May, and have a gestation lasting an average of 15 months. Like most other cetaceans, the narwhal uses clicks, whistles and knocks to communicate with others of its kind.

There are an estimated 170,000 living narwhals, and the species is listed as least concern by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). The population is threatened by the effects of climate change, such as the reduction in ice cover, and human activities such as pollution and hunting. The narwhal has been hunted for hundreds of years by Inuit in northern Canada and Greenland for meat and ivory, and regulated subsistence hunts continue.

Taxonomy[edit]

The narwhal was one of many species originally described by Carl Linnaeus in his 1758 Systema Naturae.[5] An early 1555 drawing by Olaus Magnus depicts a fish-like creature with a horn on its forehead; Magnus later assigned it to "Monocerote".[6] Its name comes from the Old Norse word nár, meaning 'corpse', which possibly refers to the animal's grey, mottled skin[7] and its habit of remaining motionless at the water's surface, a behaviour known as "logging" that usually happens in the summer.[8] The scientific name, Monodon monoceros, is derived from Greek: 'single-tooth single-horn'.[9]

The narwhal is most closely related to the beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas). Together, these two species comprise the only extant members of the family Monodontidae, sometimes referred to as the "white whales". The Monodontidae are distinguished by their pronounced melons (acoustic sensory organs), short snouts and the absence of a true dorsal fin.[10][11]

Although the narwhal and beluga are classified as separate genera, there is some evidence that they may, very rarely, interbreed. The remains of an abnormal-looking whale, described by marine zoologists as unlike any known species, were found in West Greenland around 1990. It had features midway between a narwhal and a beluga, indicating that the remains belonged to a narluga (a hybrid between the two species);[12] this was confirmed by a 2019 DNA analysis.[13] Whether the hybrid could breed remains unknown.[14][12]

Evolution[edit]

Genetic evidence suggests that within the Delphinoidea clade, porpoises are more closely related to the white whales, and these two families constitute a separate clade which diverged from dolphins within the last 11 million years.[15] Fossil evidence shows that ancient white whales lived in tropical waters. They may have migrated to Arctic and subarctic waters in response to changes in the marine food chain during the Pliocene.[16] A 2020 phylogenetic study based on genome sequencing suggested that, around 4.98 million years ago (mya), the narwhal split from the beluga whale.[17] Analysis of Monodontidae fossils indicates that they had separated from Phocoenidae around 10.82 to 20.12 mya; they are considered to be a sister taxon.[18] The following phylogenetic tree is based on a 2019 study of the family Monodontidae.[19]

Kentriodon pernix

Tursiops truncatus (Common bottlenose dolphin)

Phocoena phocoena (Harbour porpoise)

Monodontidae

Description[edit]

Two narwhals at the water surface. They have irregular markings over a white background, extremely small pectoral fins and a large, broad tail.
Narwhals near the surface

The narwhal is an agile and medium-sized whale. Adult males are around 4.1 m (13 ft) long from nose to tail tip, and females average 3.5 m (11 ft); the overall body length of 3.0 to 5.5 m (9.8 to 18.0 ft) is suggested for both males and females. Adults typically range between 800 to 1,600 kg (1,800 to 3,500 lb), with males outweighing their female counterparts.[20][21] Male narwhals attain sexual maturity at 11 to 13 years of age, reaching a length of 3.9 m (13 ft). Females become sexually mature at a younger age, between 5 and 8 years old, when they are about 3.4 m (11 ft) long.[22]

The pigmentation of the narwhal is a mottled pattern, with blackish-brown markings over a white background.[7] At sexual maturity, white patches grow on the navel and genital slit. The skin is darkest at birth, and pales over time, with old narwhals being almost pure white.[20][23] It does not have a dorsal fin; it instead possesses a shallow dorsal ridge. This is possibly an evolutionary adaptation to make swimming under ice easier, to facilitate rolling, or to reduce surface area and heat loss.[24] Like land mammals, the narwhal's neck vertebrae are jointed, instead of being fused together as in most whales; this allows a great range of neck flexibility. These characteristics—a dorsal ridge and jointed neck vertebrae—are shared by the closely related beluga whale.[8] Male and female narwhals have different tail flukes; the former are bent inward, while the latter have a sweep-back on the front margins. This is thought to be an adaptation for reducing drag caused by the tusk.[21]

Compared with most other marine mammals, the narwhal has a higher amount of myoglobin in its body, facilitating deeper dives.[25] Its skeletal muscle is adapted to withstand prolonged periods of deep-sea foraging. During such activities, oxygen is reserved in the muscles, which are typically slow-twitch, allowing for endurance and manoeuvrable motion.[26]

Tusk[edit]

The tusk of a male narwhal on display. The white tusk is long and shaped like a spiral
Narwhal tusk

The most conspicuous characteristic of the male narwhal is a single long tusk, which is a canine tooth[27] that projects from the left side of the upper jaw.[28] The tusk grows throughout the animal's life, reaching an average of 1.5 to 2.5 m (4.9 to 8.2 ft).[29][30] Tusks can sometimes reach lengths of up 3 m (9.8 ft).[31] The tusk is hollow and weighs up to 7.45 kg (16.4 lb). Some males may grow two tusks, occurring when the right canine also protrudes through the lip.[32] Females rarely grow tusks: when they do, the tusks are typically smaller than those of males, with less noticeable spirals.[33][34]

The purpose of the narwhal tusk is debated. Some biologists suggest that narwhals use their tusks in fights, while others argue that their tusks may be of use in breaking sea ice or in finding food. There is a scientific consensus, and tusks are widely acknowledged to be secondary sexual characteristics that indicate social status.[35] The tusk is a highly innervated sensory organ with millions of nerve endings that connect seawater stimuli to the brain, allowing the narwhal to sense temperature variability in its surroundings.[36][37][38] According to a 2014 study, male narwhals may exchange information about the properties of the water they have travelled through by rubbing their tusks together, as opposed to the previously assumed posturing display of aggressive male-to-male rivalry.[27] Drone footage from August 2016 in Tremblay Sound, Nunavut, revealed that narwhals used their tusks to tap and stun small Arctic cod, making them easier to catch for feeding.[39][40] Females, who usually do not have tusks, live longer than males, hence the tusk cannot be essential to the animal's survival. It is generally accepted that the primary function of the narwhal tusk is associated with sexual selection.[41]

Vestigial teeth[edit]

The narwhal has several small vestigial teeth that reside in open tooth sockets in the upper jaw. These teeth, which differ in form and composition, encircle the exposed tooth sockets laterally, posteriorly, and ventrally.[27][42] The varied morphology and anatomy of small teeth indicate a path of evolutionary obsolescence.[27]

Distribution[edit]

Six narwhals near the water surface in the open ocean
Pod of narwhals

The narwhal is found predominantly in the Atlantic and Russian areas of the Arctic Ocean. Individuals are commonly recorded in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago,[43][44] such as in the northern part of Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, Baffin Bay; off the east coast of Greenland; and in a strip running east from the northern end of Greenland round to eastern Russia (170° east). Land in this strip includes Svalbard, Franz Joseph Land and Severnaya Zemlya.[7] The northernmost sightings of narwhals have occurred north of Franz Joseph Land, at about 85° north latitude.[7] There are an estimated 12,500 narwhals in northern Hudson Bay, whereas around 140,000 reside in Baffin Bay.[45]

Migration[edit]

Narwhals exhibit seasonal migration, with a high fidelity of return to preferred ice-free summering grounds, usually in shallow waters. In summer months, they move closer to coasts, often in pods of 10–100. In the winter, they move to offshore, deeper waters under thick pack ice, surfacing in narrow fissures or in wider fractures known as leads.[46] As spring comes, these leads open up into channels and the narwhals return to the coastal bays.[47] Narwhals in Baffin Bay typically travel further north, to northern Canada and Greenland, between June and September. After this period, they travel about 1,700 kilometres (1,100 mi) south to the Davis Strait, and stay there until April.[45] Narwhals from Canada and West Greenland winter regularly visit the pack ice of the Davis Strait and Baffin Bay along the continental slope with less than 5% open water and high densities of Greenland halibut.[48]

Behaviour and ecology[edit]

Photo showing narwhal tail flukes, which are broad, flat, horizontal tail fins
Narwhal tail fluke

Narwhals normally congregate in groups of five to ten—and sometimes up to twenty—individuals. Groups may be "nurseries" with only females and young, or can contain only post-dispersal juveniles or adult males ("bulls"); mixed groups can occur at any time of year.[20] In the summer, several groups come together, forming larger aggregations which can contain 500 to over 1,000 individuals.[20] Bull narwhals have been observed rubbing each other's tusks, a behaviour known as "tusking".[37][49]

When in their wintering waters, narwhals make some of the deepest dives recorded for marine mammals, diving to at least 800 m (2,620 ft) over 15 times per day, with many dives reaching 1,500 m (4,920 ft). Dives to these depths last around 25 minutes.[50] Dive times can also vary in depth, based on season and local variation between environments. For example, in the Baffin Bay wintering grounds, narwhals tend to dive deep within the precipitous coasts, typically south of Baffin Bay. This suggests differences in habitat structure, prey availability, or genetic adaptations between subpopulations. In the northern wintering grounds, narwhals do not dive as deep as the southern population, in spite of greater water depths in these areas. This is mainly attributed to prey being concentrated nearer to the surface, which causes narwhals to subsequently alter their foraging strategies.[50]

Diet[edit]

Compared with other marine mammals, narwhals have a relatively restricted and specialised diet.[51] Due to the lack of well-developed dentition, narwhals are believed to feed by swimming close to prey and then sucking it into the mouth.[52] A study of the stomach contents of 73 narwhals found that Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) was the most commonly consumed prey, followed by Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides). Large quantities of Boreo-Atlantic armhook squid (Gonatus fabricii) were discovered. Males were more likely than females to consume two additional prey species: polar cod (Arctogadus glacialis) and redfish (Sebastes marinus), both of which are mostly found in depths of more than 500 m (1,600 ft). The study also concluded that the size of prey did not differ among genders or ages.[53] Other items found in stomachs have included wolffish, capelin, skate eggs and sometimes rocks.[20][48][46]

Narwhal diet varies by season. In winter, narwhals feed on demersal prey, mostly flatfish, under dense pack ice. During the summer, they eat mostly Arctic cod and Greenland halibut, with other fish such as polar cod making up the remainder of their diet.[53] Narwhals consume much more food throughout the winter months than they do in summer.[48][46]

Breeding[edit]

Female narwhals start bearing calves when they are six to eight years old.[8] Adults mate from March to May when they are in offshore pack ice. After a gestation of 15 months, females give birth to calves between July and August.[54] As with most marine mammals, only a single young is born, averaging 1.5 m (4.9 ft) in length. At birth, calves are white or light grey in colour.[55] The birth interval is typically between two and three years.[22] Summer population surveys along different coastal inlets of Baffin Island, found that calf numbers varied from 0.05% of 35,000 in Admiralty Inlet, to 5% of 10,000 total in Eclipse Sound. These findings suggest that higher calf counts may reflect calving and nursery habitats in favourable inlets.[56]

Newborn calves begin their lives with a thin layer of blubber which thickens as they nurse their mother's milk, which is rich in fat. Calves are dependent on milk for about 20 months.[41] This long lactation period gives calves time to learn skills they will need to survive as they mature. Calves typically stay within two body lengths of the mother.[8][56]

The species goes through menopause; during this phase, females may continue to take care of calves in the pod.[22] A 2024 study concluded that five species of Odontoceti evolved menopause to acquire higher overall longevity, though their reproductive periods did not change. To explain this, scientists hypothesized that calves of the five Odontoceti species require the assistance of menopausal females for an enhanced chance at survival, as they are extremely difficult for a single female to successfully rear.[57]

Communication[edit]

Like most toothed whales, narwhals use sound to navigate and hunt for food. Narwhals primarily vocalise through "clicks", "whistles" and "knocks", created by air movement between chambers near the blowhole.[58] The frequency of these sounds range from 0.3 to 125 hertz, while those used for echolocation typically fall between 19 and 48 hertz.[59][60] Sounds are reflected off the sloping front of the skull and focused by the animal's melon, which can be controlled through surrounding musculature.[61] Echolocation clicks are used for detecting prey and locating barriers at short distances.[62] "Whistles" and "throbs" are mostly used to communicate with other pod members.[63] Calls recorded from the same pod are more similar than calls from different pods, suggesting the possibility of group- or individual-specific calls. Narwhals sometimes adjust the duration and pitch of their pulsed calls to maximise sound propagation in varying acoustic environments.[64] Other sounds produced by narwhals include trumpeting and "squeaking-door sounds".[8] The narwhal vocal repertoire is similar to that of the closely related beluga. They have comparable whistle frequency ranges, whistle duration and repetition rates of pulse calls, though beluga whistles are thought to have a higher frequency range and more diversified whistle contours.[65]

Longevity and mortality factors[edit]

Polar bear feeding/scavenging on a dead narwhal
A polar bear scavenging a narwhal carcass

Narwhals live an average of 50 years, though techniques using amino acid dating from the lens of the eyes suggest that female narwhals can reach 115 ± 10 years and male narwhals can live to 84 ± 9 years.[66]

Death by suffocation often occurs when narwhals fail to migrate before the Arctic freezes over in late autumn.[20][67] Narwhals drown if open water is no longer accessible and ice is too thick for them to break through. Breathing holes in ice may be up to 1,450 m (4,760 ft) apart, which limits the use of foraging grounds. These holes must be at least 0.5 m (1.6 ft) wide to allow an adult whale to breathe.[25] Narwhals also die of starvation from entrapment events.[20]

In 1914–1915, around 600 narwhal carcasses were discovered after entrapment events, most occurring in areas such as Disko Bay. In the largest entrapment in 1915 in West Greenland, over 1,000 narwhals were trapped under the ice.[68] Several cases of sea entrapment were recorded in 2008–2010, during the Arctic winter, including in some places where such events had never been recorded before.[67] This suggests later departure dates from summering grounds. Wind and currents move sea ice from adjacent locations to Greenland, leading to fluctuations in concentration. Due to their tendency of returning to the same areas, changes in weather and ice conditions are not always associated with narwhal movement toward open water. It is currently unclear to what extent sea ice changes pose a danger to narwhals.[20]

Major predators are polar bears, which typically wait at breathing holes for young narwhals.[20][69] Orcas group together to overwhelm and surround narwhal pods,[70] killing up to dozens of narwhals in a single attack.[71] To escape predators such as orcas, narwhals may use prolonged submersion to hide under ice floes rather than relying on speed.[25]

Conservation[edit]

The narwhal is listed as least concern by the IUCN Red List. As of 2017, the global population is estimated to be 123,000 mature individuals out of a total of 170,000. There were about 12,000 narwhals in Northern Hudson Bay in 2011, and around 49,000 in Somerset Island in 2013. There are approximately a total of 35,000 in Admiralty Inlet, 10,000 in Eclipse Sound, 17,000 in Eastern Baffin Bay, and 12,000 in Jones Sound. Population numbers in Smith Sound, Inglefield Bredning and Melville Bay are 16,000, 8,000 and 3,000, respectively. There are roughly 837 narwhals in the waters off Svalbard.[3]

In 1972 Marine Mammal Protection Act, the United States banned commercial imports of products made from narwhal body parts.[3] Narwhals are listed in Appendix II of CITES and CMS, meaning that trade of narwhals and their body parts is restricted and controlled internationally.[4][72] The species is also classified as endangered under COSEWIC.[45] Narwhals are difficult to keep in captivity.[37]

Threats[edit]

Data showing the number of caught belugas and narwhals from 1954 to 2014
Beluga and narwhal catches

Narwhals are hunted for their skin, meat, teeth, tusks, and carved vertebrae, which are commercially traded. About 1,000 narwhals are killed per year: 600 in Canada and 400 in Greenland. Canadian catches were steady at this level in the 1970s, dropped to 300–400 per year in the late 1980s and 1990s and have risen again since 1999. Greenland caught more, 700–900 per year, in the 1980s and 1990s.[73]

Narwhal tusks are sold both carved and uncarved in Canada[74][75] and Greenland.[76] Per hunted narwhal, an average of one or two vertebrae and one or two teeth are sold.[74] In Greenland, the skin (muktuk) is sold commercially to fish factories,[76] and in Canada to other communities.[74] One estimate of the annual gross value received from narwhal hunts in Hudson Bay in 2013 was CA$6,500 (US$6,300) per narwhal, of which CA$4,570 (US$4,440) was for skin and meat. However the net income, after subtracting costs in time and equipment, was a loss of CA$7 (US$6.80) per person. Hunts receive subsidies, but they continue mainly to support tradition, rather than for profit. Economic analysis noted that whale watching may be an alternate source of revenue.[74]

As narwhals grow, bioaccumulation of heavy metals take place.[77] It is thought that pollution in the ocean is the primary cause of bioaccumulation in marine mammals; this may lead to health problems for the narwhal population.[78] When bioaccumulating, numerous metals appear in the blubber, liver, kidney and musculature. A study found that the blubber was nearly devoid of these metals, whereas the liver and kidneys had a dense concentration of these metals. Relative to the liver, the kidney has a greater concentration of zinc and cadmium, while lead, copper and mercury were not nearly as abundant. Individuals of different weight and sex showed dissimilarities in the concentration of metals in their organs.[79]

Narwhals are one of the most vulnerable Arctic marine mammals to climate change[47] due to sea ice decline, especially in their northern wintering grounds such as the Baffin Bay and Davis Strait regions. Satellite data collected from these areas shows the amount of sea ice has been markedly reduced from what it was previously.[80] It is thought that narwhals' foraging ranges reflect patterns they acquired early in life, which improves their capacity to obtain the food supplies they need for the winter. This strategy focuses on strong site fidelity rather than individual-level responses to local prey distribution, resulting in focal foraging areas during the winter. As such, despite changing conditions, narwhals will continue returning to the same areas during migration.[80] They emerged during the late Pliocene epoch and, therefore, must have undergone adaptation to glacials and climate change.[81]

Reduction in sea ice has possibly led to increased exposure to predation. In 2002, hunters in Siorapaluk experienced an increase in the number of caught narwhals, but this increase did not seem to be linked to enhanced endeavour,[82] implying that climate change may be making the narwhal more vulnerable to hunting. Scientists recommend assessing population numbers, assigning sustainable quotas, and ensuring local acceptance of sustainable development. Seismic surveys associated with oil exploration disrupt the narwhal's normal migration patterns. These disturbed migrations may also be associated with increased sea ice entrapment.[83]

Relationship with humans[edit]

Inuit[edit]

An Inuit man holding the head of a dead narwhal in the Arctic
Hunter posing next to a narwhal head (1903)
Inuit lance head made from narwhal tusk with a meteorite-iron point
The head of an Inuit lance made from a narwhal tusk, with a meteorite-iron point (British Museum)

While it is generally illegal to hunt narwhals, Inuit are permitted to do so. Narwhals are very difficult to encroach and present challenging targets for hunters.[84] Narwhals have been extensively hunted the same way as other sea mammals, such as seals and whales, for their large quantities of fat. Almost all parts of the narwhal—the meat, skin, blubber and organs—are consumed. Muktuk, the raw skin and attached blubber, is considered a delicacy. As a custom, one or two vertebrae per animal are used for tools and art.[74][7] The skin is an important source of vitamin C, which is otherwise difficult to obtain in the Arctic Circle. In some places in Greenland, such as Qaanaaq, traditional hunting methods are used and whales are harpooned from handmade kayaks. In other parts of Greenland and Northern Canada, high-speed boats and hunting rifles are used.[7]

In Inuit legend, the narwhal's tusk was created when a woman with harpoon rope tied around her waist was dragged into the ocean after the harpoon had stuck into a large narwhal. She was then transformed into a narwhal; her hair, which she was wearing in a twisted knot, became the spiralling narwhal tusk.[85]

Tusk trade[edit]

The narwhal tusk has been highly sought-after in Europe for centuries. This stems from a medieval belief that narwhal tusks were the horns of the legendary unicorn.[86][87] Trade of narwhal tusks began approximately in 1000.[88] Scientists have long speculated that Vikings collected tusks washed ashore on beaches of Greenland and surrounding areas, yet others predict Norsemen interchanged tusks with Europeans after acquiring them from Inuit. Tusks spread across the Middle East and East Asia. A hypothesis suggests that Norsemen may have hunted narwhals, though this was never confirmed and was later disproven.[89][90] Vikings made weapons out of tusks to be used in battles or hunts. The trade became prevalent in Renaissance times.[91]

Across medieval Europe, narwhal tusks were given as state gifts to kings and queens. There was also a growing demand for the supposed powers of unicorn horns.[86] In the 1700s to 1800s, the price tag of tusks were said to be a couple of hundred times greater than its weight in gold.[92] Ivan the Terrible had a jewellery-covered narwhal tusk on his deathbed,[86] while Elizabeth I received a narwhal tusk said to be worth 10,000 pounds sterling[93] from English privateer Martin Frobisher, who proposed that the tusk was from a "sea-unicorne". The tusks were displayed in cabinets of curiosities.[94][95] They were also used as antidotes, and to detect poison.[96] The tusk has been used for therapeutic purposes, including cleansing polluted water and treating rubella, measles, fevers, and pain.[97][98] The rise of science towards the end of the 17th century led to a decreased belief in magic and alchemy. After it was determined that narwhal tusks were not effective antidotes, the practice of using them for this purpose was subsequently abandoned.[99]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Newton, Edwin Tulley (1891). The Vertebrata of the Pliocene deposits of Britain. London: Printed for H.M. Stationery off., by Eyre and Spottiswoode. doi:10.5962/bhl.title.57425.
  2. ^ "Monodon monoceros Linnaeus 1758 (narhwal)". PBDB.org. Archived from the original on 12 July 2020. Retrieved 11 July 2020.
  3. ^ a b c Lowry, L.; Laidre, K.; Reeves, R. (2017). "Monodon monoceros". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T13704A50367651.en.
  4. ^ a b "Appendices | CITES". cites.org. Archived from the original on 5 December 2017. Retrieved 14 January 2022.
  5. ^ Linnaeus, Carl (1758). "Monodon monoceros". Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata (in Latin). Stockholm: Lars Salvius. p. 824.
  6. ^ McLeish, Todd (2013). Narwhals: Arctic Whales in a Melting World. University of Washington Press. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-295-80469-9.
  7. ^ a b c d e f Heide-Jørgensen, M. P.; Laidre, K. L. (2006). Greenland's Winter Whales: The Beluga, the Narwhal and the Bowhead Whale. Ilinniusiorfik Undervisningsmiddelforlag, Nuuk, Greenland. pp. 100–125. ISBN 87-7975-299-3.
  8. ^ a b c d e "The narwhal: unicorn of the seas" (PDF). Fisheries and Oceans Canada. 2007. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 July 2013. Retrieved 10 July 2013.
  9. ^ Webster, Noah (1880). "Narwhal". An American Dictionary of the English Language. G. & C. Merriam. p. 854.
  10. ^ Brodie, Paul (1984). Macdonald, D. (ed.). The Encyclopedia of Mammals. New York: Facts on File. pp. 200–203. ISBN 0-87196-871-1.
  11. ^ Wilson, Don E.; Reeder, DeeAnn M. (2005). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. JHU Press. ISBN 0-8018-8221-4.
  12. ^ a b Heide-Jørgensen, Mads P.; Reeves, Randall R. (July 1993). "Description of an anomalous Monodontid skull from West Greenland: a possible hybrid?". Marine Mammal Science. 9 (3): 258–268. Bibcode:1993MMamS...9..258H. doi:10.1111/j.1748-7692.1993.tb00454.x. ISSN 0824-0469.
  13. ^ Skovrind, Mikkel; Castruita, Jose Alfredo Samaniego; Haile, James; Treadaway, Eve C.; Gopalakrishnan, Shyam; Westbury, Michael V.; Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter; Szpak, Paul; Lorenzen, Eline D. (20 June 2019). "Hybridization between two high Arctic cetaceans confirmed by genomic analysis". Scientific Reports. 9 (1): 7729. Bibcode:2019NatSR...9.7729S. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-44038-0. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 6586676. PMID 31221994.
  14. ^ Pappas, Stephanie (20 June 2019). "First-ever beluga–narwhal hybrid found in the Arctic". Live Science. Archived from the original on 20 June 2019. Retrieved 20 June 2019.
  15. ^ Waddell, Victor G.; Milinkovitch, Michel C.; Bérubé, Martine; Stanhope, Michael J. (1 May 2000). "Molecular phylogenetic examination of the Delphinoidea trichotomy: congruent evidence from three nuclear loci indicates that porpoises (Phocoenidae) share a more recent common ancestry with white whales (Monodontidae) than they do with true dolphins (Delphinidae)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 15 (2): 314–318. doi:10.1006/mpev.1999.0751. ISSN 1055-7903. PMID 10837160.
  16. ^ Vélez-Juarbe, Jorge; Pyenson, Nicholas D. (1 March 2012). "Bohaskaia monodontoides, a new monodontid (Cetacea, Odontoceti, Delphinoidea) from the Pliocene of the western North Atlantic Ocean". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 32 (2): 476–484. Bibcode:2012JVPal..32..476V. doi:10.1080/02724634.2012.641705. ISSN 0272-4634. S2CID 55606151.
  17. ^ Louis, Marie; Skovrind, Mikkel; Samaniego Castruita, Jose Alfredo; Garilao, Cristina; Kaschner, Kristin; Gopalakrishnan, Shyam; Haile, James S.; Lydersen, Christian; Kovacs, Kit M.; Garde, Eva; Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter; Postma, Lianne; Ferguson, Steven H.; Willerslev, Eske; Lorenzen, Eline D. (29 April 2020). "Influence of past climate change on phylogeography and demographic history of narwhals (Monodon monoceros)". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 287 (1925): 20192964. doi:10.1098/rspb.2019.2964. ISSN 0962-8452. PMC 7211449. PMID 32315590.
  18. ^ Racicot, Rachel A.; Darroch, Simon A. F.; Kohno, Naoki (October 2018). "Neuroanatomy and inner ear labyrinths of the narwhal, Monodon monoceros, and beluga, Delphinapterus leucas (Cetacea: Monodontidae)". Journal of Anatomy. 233 (4): 421–439. doi:10.1111/joa.12862. ISSN 0021-8782. PMC 6131972. PMID 30033539.
  19. ^ Bianucci, Giovanni; Pesci, Fabio; Collareta, Alberto; Tinelli, Chiara (4 May 2019). "A new Monodontidae (Cetacea, Delphinoidea) from the lower Pliocene of Italy supports a warm-water origin for narwhals and white whales". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 39 (3): e1645148. Bibcode:2019JVPal..39E5148B. doi:10.1080/02724634.2019.1645148. hdl:11568/1022436. ISSN 0272-4634. S2CID 202018525. Retrieved 21 January 2024.
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i Macdonald, David Whyte; Barrett, Priscilla (2001). Mammals of Europe. Princeton University Press. p. 173. ISBN 0-691-09160-9. Archived from the original on 28 January 2024. Retrieved 27 January 2024.
  21. ^ a b Fontanella, Janet E.; Fish, Frank E.; Rybczynski, Natalia; Nweeia, Martin T.; Ketten, Darlene R. (October 2011). "Three-dimensional geometry of the narwhal (Monodon monoceros) flukes in relation to hydrodynamics". Marine Mammal Science. 27 (4): 889–898. Bibcode:2011MMamS..27..889F. doi:10.1111/j.1748-7692.2010.00439.x. hdl:1912/4924. ISSN 0824-0469.
  22. ^ a b c Garde, Eva; Hansen, Steen H.; Ditlevsen, Susanne; Tvermosegaard, Ketil Biering; Hansen, Johan; Harding, Karin C.; Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter (7 July 2015). "Life history parameters of narwhals (Monodon monoceros) from Greenland". Journal of Mammalogy. 96 (4): 866–879. doi:10.1093/jmammal/gyv110. ISSN 0022-2372. Archived from the original on 28 January 2024. Retrieved 22 January 2024.
  23. ^ "Monodon monoceros". Fisheries and Aquaculture Department: Species Fact Sheets. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Archived from the original on 16 February 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2007.
  24. ^ Dietz, Rune; Shapiro, Ari D.; Bakhtiari, Mehdi; Orr, Jack; Tyack, Peter L; Richard, Pierre; Eskesen, Ida Grønborg; Marshall, Greg (19 November 2007). "Upside-down swimming behaviour of free-ranging narwhals". BMC Ecology. 7 (1): 14. Bibcode:2007BMCE....7...14D. doi:10.1186/1472-6785-7-14. ISSN 1472-6785. PMC 2238733. PMID 18021441.
  25. ^ a b c Williams, Terrie M.; Noren, Shawn R.; Glenn, Mike (April 2011). "Extreme physiological adaptations as predictors of climate-change sensitivity in the narwhal (Monodon monoceros)". Marine Mammal Science. 27 (2): 334–349. Bibcode:2011MMamS..27..334W. doi:10.1111/j.1748-7692.2010.00408.x. ISSN 0824-0469.
  26. ^ Pagano, Anthony M.; Williams, Terrie M. (15 February 2021). "Physiological consequences of Arctic sea ice loss on large marine carnivores: unique responses by polar bears and narwhals". Journal of Experimental Biology. 224 (Suppl_1). doi:10.1242/jeb.228049. ISSN 0022-0949. PMID 33627459.
  27. ^ a b c d Nweeia, Martin T.; Eichmiller, Frederick C.; Hauschka, Peter V.; Donahue, Gretchen A.; Orr, Jack R.; Ferguson, Steven H.; Watt, Cortney A.; Mead, James G.; Potter, Charles W.; Dietz, Rune; Giuseppetti, Anthony A.; Black, Sandie R.; Trachtenberg, Alexander J.; Kuo, Winston P. (18 March 2014). "Sensory ability in the narwhal tooth organ system". The Anatomical Record. 297 (4): 599–617. doi:10.1002/ar.22886. ISSN 1932-8486. PMID 24639076. Archived from the original on 24 January 2024. Retrieved 24 January 2024.
  28. ^ Louis, Marie; Skovrind, Mikkel; Garde, Eva; Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter; Szpak, Paul; Lorenzen, Eline D. (3 February 2021). "Population-specific sex and size variation in long-term foraging ecology of belugas and narwhals". Royal Society Open Science. 8 (2). Bibcode:2021RSOS....802226L. doi:10.1098/rsos.202226. ISSN 2054-5703. PMC 8074634. PMID 33972883.
  29. ^ Dietz, Rune; Desforges, Jean-Pierre; Rigét, Frank F.; Aubail, Aurore; Garde, Eva; Ambus, Per; Drimmie, Robert; Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter; Sonne, Christian (10 May 2021). "Analysis of narwhal tusks reveals lifelong feeding ecology and mercury exposure". Current Biology. 31 (9): 2012–2019.e2. Bibcode:2021CBio...31E2012D. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2021.02.018. ISSN 0960-9822. PMID 33705717. Archived from the original on 26 January 2024. Retrieved 26 January 2024.
  30. ^ Mann, Janet (2000). Cetacean Societies: Field Studies of Dolphins and Whales. University of Chicago Press. p. 247. ISBN 0-226-50341-0. Archived from the original on 28 January 2024. Retrieved 28 January 2024.
  31. ^ Dipper, Frances (2021). The Marine World: A Natural History of Ocean Life. Princeton University Press. p. 437. ISBN 978-0-691-23244-7. Archived from the original on 28 January 2024. Retrieved 28 January 2024.
  32. ^ Garde, Eva; Peter Heide-Jørgensen, Mads; Ditlevsen, Susanne; Hansen, Steen H. (January 2012). "Aspartic acid racemization rate in narwhal (Monodon monoceros) eye lens nuclei estimated by counting of growth layers in tusks". Polar Research. 31 (1): 15865. doi:10.3402/polar.v31i0.15865. ISSN 1751-8369.
  33. ^ Charry, Bertrand; Tissier, Emily; Iacozza, John; Marcoux, Marianne; Watt, Cortney A. (4 August 2021). "Mapping Arctic cetaceans from space: a case study for beluga and narwhal". PLOS ONE. 16 (8): e0254380. Bibcode:2021PLoSO..1654380C. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0254380. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 8336832. PMID 34347780.
  34. ^ Eales, Nellie B. (17 October 1950). "The skull of the foetal narwhal, Monodon monoceros". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences. 235 (621): 1–33. Bibcode:1950RSPTB.235....1E. doi:10.1098/rstb.1950.0013. ISSN 2054-0280. PMID 24538734. S2CID 40943163. Archived from the original on 20 June 2022. Retrieved 26 January 2024.
  35. ^ Loch, Carolina; Fordyce, R. Ewan; Werth, Alexander (2023), Würsig, Bernd; Orbach, Dara N. (eds.), "Skulls, teeth, and sex", Sex in Cetaceans: Morphology, Behavior, and the Evolution of Sexual Strategies, Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp. 51–64, doi:10.1007/978-3-031-35651-3_3, ISBN 978-3-031-35651-3, retrieved 5 May 2024
  36. ^ Nweeia, Martin T.; Eichmiller, Frederick C.; Hauschka, Peter V.; Donahue, Gretchen A.; Orr, Jack R.; Ferguson, Steven H.; Watt, Cortney A.; Mead, James G.; Potter, Charles W.; Dietz, Rune; Giuseppetti, Anthony A.; Black, Sandie R.; Trachtenberg, Alexander J.; Kuo, Winston P. (April 2014). "Sensory ability in the narwhal tooth organ system". The Anatomical Record. 297 (4): 599–617. doi:10.1002/ar.22886. ISSN 1932-8486. PMID 24639076.
  37. ^ a b c Broad, William (13 December 2005). "It's sensitive. Really". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 28 January 2024. Retrieved 22 February 2017.
  38. ^ Vincent, James (19 March 2014). "Scientists suggest they have the answer to the mystery of the narwhal's tusk". Independent.co.uk. Archived from the original on 18 June 2022. Retrieved 31 March 2014.
  39. ^ Laidre, Kristin L.; Moon, Twila; Hauser, Donna D. W.; McGovern, Richard; Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter; Dietz, Rune; Hudson, Ben (October 2016). "Use of glacial fronts by narwhals (Monodon monoceros) in West Greenland". Biology Letters. 12 (10): 20160457. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2016.0457. ISSN 1744-9561. PMC 5095189. PMID 27784729.
  40. ^ Berta, Annalisa (2023). Sea Mammals: The Past and Present Lives of Our Oceans' Cornerstone Species. Princeton University Press. p. 150. ISBN 978-0-691-23664-3.
  41. ^ a b Kelley, Trish C.; Stewart, Robert E. A.; Yurkowski, David J.; Ryan, Anna; Ferguson, Steven H. (April 2015). "Mating ecology of beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) and narwhal (Monodon monoceros) as estimated by reproductive tract metrics". Marine Mammal Science. 31 (2): 479–500. Bibcode:2015MMamS..31..479K. doi:10.1111/mms.12165. ISSN 0824-0469.
  42. ^ "For a dentist, the narwhal's smile is a mystery of evolution". Smithsonian Insider. 18 April 2012. Archived from the original on 14 September 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2016.
  43. ^ Heide-Jørgensen, M. P. (2018), "Narwhal: Monodon monoceros", in Würsig, Bernd; Thewissen, J. G. M.; Kovacs, Kit M. (eds.), Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals (Third Edition), Academic Press, pp. 627–631, ISBN 978-0-12-804327-1, archived from the original on 20 January 2023, retrieved 27 January 2024
  44. ^ Belikov, Stanislav E.; Boltunov, Andrei N. (21 July 2002). "Distribution and migrations of cetaceans in the Russian Arctic according to observations from aerial ice reconnaissance". NAMMCO Scientific Publications. 4: 69–86. doi:10.7557/3.2838. ISSN 2309-2491. Archived from the original on 27 January 2024. Retrieved 27 January 2024.
  45. ^ a b c Watt, C. A.; Orr, J. R.; Ferguson, S. H. (January 2017). "Spatial distribution of narwhal (Monodon monoceros) diving for Canadian populations helps identify important seasonal foraging areas". Canadian Journal of Zoology. 95 (1): 41–50. doi:10.1139/cjz-2016-0178. ISSN 0008-4301. Archived from the original on 28 January 2024. Retrieved 20 January 2024.
  46. ^ a b c Laidre, K. L.; Heide-Jorgensen, M. P. (January 2005). "Winter feeding intensity of narwhals (Monodon monoceros)". Marine Mammal Science. 21 (1): 45–57. Bibcode:2005MMamS..21...45L. doi:10.1111/j.1748-7692.2005.tb01207.x. ISSN 0824-0469.
  47. ^ a b Laidre, Kristin L.; Stirling, Ian; Lowry, Lloyd F.; Wiig, Øystein; Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter; Ferguson, Steven H. (March 2008). "Quantifying the sensitivity of Arctic marine mammals to climate-induced habitat change". Ecological Applications. 18 (sp2): S97–S125. Bibcode:2008EcoAp..18S..97L. doi:10.1890/06-0546.1. ISSN 1051-0761. PMID 18494365.
  48. ^ a b c Laidre, K. L.; Heide-Jørgensen, M. P.; Jørgensen, O. A.; Treble, M. A. (1 January 2004). "Deep-ocean predation by a high Arctic cetacean". ICES Journal of Marine Science. 61 (3): 430–440. Bibcode:2004ICJMS..61..430L. doi:10.1016/j.icesjms.2004.02.002. ISSN 1095-9289.
  49. ^ "The biology and ecology of narwhals". noaa.gov. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on 14 August 2022. Retrieved 15 January 2009.
  50. ^ a b Laidre, Kristin L.; Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter; Dietz, Rune; Hobbs, Roderick C.; Jørgensen, Ole A. (17 October 2003). "Deep-diving by narwhals (Monodon monoceros): differences in foraging behavior between wintering areas?". Marine Ecology Progress Series. 261: 269–281. Bibcode:2003MEPS..261..269L. doi:10.3354/meps261269. ISSN 0171-8630.
  51. ^ Chambault, P.; Tervo, O. M.; Garde, E.; Hansen, R. G.; Blackwell, S. B.; Williams, T. M.; Dietz, R.; Albertsen, C. M.; Laidre, K. L.; Nielsen, N. H.; Richard, P.; Sinding, M. H. S.; Schmidt, H. C.; Heide-Jørgensen, M. P. (29 October 2020). "The impact of rising sea temperatures on an Arctic top predator, the narwhal". Scientific Reports. 10 (1): 18678. Bibcode:2020NatSR..1018678C. doi:10.1038/s41598-020-75658-6. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 7596713. PMID 33122802.
  52. ^ Jensen, Frederik H.; Tervo, Outi M.; Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter; Ditlevsen, Susanne (25 March 2023). "Detecting narwhal foraging behaviour from accelerometer and depth data using mixed-effects logistic regression". Animal Biotelemetry. 11 (1): 14. Bibcode:2023AnBio..11...14J. doi:10.1186/s40317-023-00325-2. ISSN 2050-3385.
  53. ^ a b Finley, K. J.; Gibb, E. J. (December 1982). "Summer diet of the narwhal (Monodon monoceros) in Pond Inlet, northern Baffin Island". Canadian Journal of Zoology. 60 (12): 3353–3363. doi:10.1139/z82-424. ISSN 0008-4301.
  54. ^ Klinowska, Margaret, ed. (1991). Dolphins, Porpoises and Whales of the World: The IUCN Red Data Book. IUCN. p. 79. ISBN 2-88032-936-1. Archived from the original on 28 January 2024. Retrieved 28 January 2024.
  55. ^ Tinker, Spencer Wilkie (1988). Whales of the World. E. J. Brill. p. 213. ISBN 0-935848-47-9. Archived from the original on 28 January 2024. Retrieved 28 January 2024.
  56. ^ a b Evans Ogden, Lesley (6 January 2016). "Elusive narwhal babies spotted gathering at Canadian nursery". New Scientist. Archived from the original on 21 September 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2016.
  57. ^ Ellis, Samuel; Franks, Daniel W.; Nielsen, Mia Lybkær Kronborg; Weiss, Michael N.; Croft, Darren P. (13 March 2024). "The evolution of menopause in toothed whales". Nature. 627 (8004): 579–585. Bibcode:2024Natur.627..579E. doi:10.1038/s41586-024-07159-9. ISSN 1476-4687. PMC 10954554. PMID 38480878.
  58. ^ Blackwell, Susanna B.; Tervo, Outi M.; Conrad, Alexander S.; Sinding, Mikkel H. S.; Hansen, Rikke G.; Ditlevsen, Susanne; Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter (13 June 2018). "Spatial and temporal patterns of sound production in East Greenland narwhals". PLOS ONE. 13 (6): e0198295. Bibcode:2018PLoSO..1398295B. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0198295. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 5999075. PMID 29897955.
  59. ^ Still, Robert; Harrop, Hugh; Dias, Luís; Stenton, Tim (2019). Europe's Sea Mammals Including the Azores, Madeira, the Canary Islands and Cape Verde: A field guide to the whales, dolphins, porpoises and seals. Princeton University Press. p. 16. ISBN 978-0-691-19062-4. Archived from the original on 28 January 2024. Retrieved 28 January 2024.
  60. ^ Miller, Lee A.; Pristed, John; Møshl, Bertel; Surlykke, Annemarie (October 1995). "The click-sounds of narwhals (Monodon monoceros) in Inglefield Bay, Northwest Greenland". Marine Mammal Science. 11 (4): 491–502. Bibcode:1995MMamS..11..491M. doi:10.1111/j.1748-7692.1995.tb00672.x. ISSN 0824-0469. S2CID 85148204. Archived from the original on 5 October 2022. Retrieved 27 January 2024.
  61. ^ Senevirathna, Jayan Duminda Mahesh; Yonezawa, Ryo; Saka, Taiki; Igarashi, Yoji; Funasaka, Noriko; Yoshitake, Kazutoshi; Kinoshita, Shigeharu; Asakawa, Shuichi (January 2021). "Transcriptomic insight into the melon morphology of toothed whales for aquatic molecular developments". Sustainability. 13 (24): 13997. doi:10.3390/su132413997. ISSN 2071-1050.
  62. ^ Zahn, Marie J.; Rankin, Shannon; McCullough, Jennifer L. K.; Koblitz, Jens C.; Archer, Frederick; Rasmussen, Marianne H.; Laidre, Kristin L. (12 November 2021). "Acoustic differentiation and classification of wild belugas and narwhals using echolocation clicks". Scientific Reports. 11 (1): 22141. Bibcode:2021NatSR..1122141Z. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-01441-w. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 8589986. PMID 34772963.
  63. ^ Marcoux, Marianne; Auger-Méthé, Marie; Humphries, Murray M. (October 2012). "Variability and context specificity of narwhal (Monodon monoceros) whistles and pulsed calls". Marine Mammal Science. 28 (4): 649–665. Bibcode:2012MMamS..28..649M. doi:10.1111/j.1748-7692.2011.00514.x. ISSN 0824-0469.
  64. ^ Lesage, Véronique; Barrette, Cyrille; Kingsley, Michael C. S.; Sjare, Becky (January 1999). "The effect of vessel noise on the vocal behavior of belugas in the St. Lawrence river estuary, Canada". Marine Mammal Science. 15 (1): 65–84. Bibcode:1999MMamS..15...65L. doi:10.1111/j.1748-7692.1999.tb00782.x. ISSN 0824-0469.
  65. ^ Jones, Joshua M.; Frasier, Kaitlin E.; Westdal, Kristin H.; Ootoowak, Alex J.; Wiggins, Sean M.; Hildebrand, John A. (1 March 2022). "Beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) and narwhal (Monodon monoceros) echolocation click detection and differentiation from long-term Arctic acoustic recordings". Polar Biology. 45 (3): 449–463. Bibcode:2022PoBio..45..449J. doi:10.1007/s00300-022-03008-5. ISSN 1432-2056. S2CID 246176509.
  66. ^ Garde, Eva; Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter; Hansen, Steen H.; Nachman, Gösta; Forchhammer, Mads C. (28 February 2007). "Age-specific growth and remarkable longevity in narwhals (Monodon monoceros) from West Greenland as estimated by aspartic acid racemization". Journal of Mammalogy. 88 (1): 49–58. doi:10.1644/06-mamm-a-056r.1. ISSN 0022-2372.
  67. ^ a b Laidre, Kristin; Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter; Stern, Harry; Richard, Pierre (1 January 2012). "Unusual narwhal sea ice entrapments and delayed autumn freeze-up trends". Polar Biology. 35 (1): 149–154. Bibcode:2012PoBio..35..149L. doi:10.1007/s00300-011-1036-8. ISSN 1432-2056. S2CID 253807718.
  68. ^ Porsild, Morten P. (1918). "On 'savssats': a crowding of Arctic animals at holes in the sea ice". Geographical Review. 6 (3): 215–228. Bibcode:1918GeoRv...6..215P. doi:10.2307/207815. ISSN 0016-7428. JSTOR 207815.
  69. ^ Perrin, William F.; Wursig, Bernd; Thewissen, J. G. M. 'Hans', eds. (2009). Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals. Academic Press. pp. 929–930. ISBN 978-0-08-091993-5. Archived from the original on 28 January 2024. Retrieved 18 November 2020.
  70. ^ Ferguson, Steven H.; Higdon, Jeff W.; Westdal, Kristin H. (30 January 2012). "Prey items and predation behavior of killer whales (Orcinus orca) in Nunavut, Canada based on Inuit hunter interviews". Aquatic Biosystems. 8 (1): 3. Bibcode:2012AqBio...8....3F. doi:10.1186/2046-9063-8-3. ISSN 2046-9063. PMC 3310332. PMID 22520955.
  71. ^ "Invasion of the killer whales: killer whales attack pod of narwhal". Public Broadcasting System. 19 November 2014. Archived from the original on 22 October 2016. Retrieved 23 October 2016.
  72. ^ "Fact sheet narwhal and climate change| CITES" (PDF). cms.int. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 January 2024. Retrieved 21 January 2024.
  73. ^ Witting, Lars (10 April 2017), Meta population modelling of narwhals in East Canada and West Greenland – 2017, doi:10.1101/059691, S2CID 89062294, retrieved 14 February 2024
  74. ^ a b c d e Hoover, C.; Bailey, M. L.; Higdon, J.; Ferguson, S. H.; Sumaila, R. (2013). "Estimating the economic value of narwhal and beluga hunts in Hudson Bay, Nunavut". Arctic. 66 (1). Arctic Institute of North America: 1–16. doi:10.14430/arctic4261. ISSN 0004-0843.
  75. ^ Greenfieldboyce, Nell (19 August 2009). "Inuit hunters help scientists track narwhals". NPR.org. National Public Radio. Archived from the original on 24 October 2016. Retrieved 24 October 2016.
  76. ^ a b Heide-Jørgensen, Mads P. (22 April 1994). "Distribution, exploitation and population status of white whales (Delphinapterus leucas) and narwhals (Monodon monoceros) in West Greenland". Meddelelser om Grønland. Bioscience. 39: 135–149. doi:10.7146/mogbiosci.v39.142541. ISSN 0106-1054.
  77. ^ Wagemann, R.; Snow, N. B.; Lutz, A.; Scott, D. P. (9 December 1983). "Heavy metals in tissues and organs of the narwhal (Monodon monoceros)". Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 40 (S2): s206–s214. doi:10.1139/f83-326. ISSN 0706-652X.
  78. ^ Bouquegneau, Krishna Das; Debacker, Virginie; Pillet, Stéphane Jean-Marie (2003), "Heavy metals in marine mammals", Toxicology of Marine Mammals, CRC Press, pp. 147–179, doi:10.1201/9780203165577-11, ISBN 978-0-429-21746-3, retrieved 4 February 2024
  79. ^ Dietz, R.; Riget, F.; Hobson, K.; Heidejorgensen, M.; Moller, P.; Cleemann, M.; Deboer, J.; Glasius, M. (20 September 2004). "Regional and inter annual patterns of heavy metals, organochlorines and stable isotopes in narwhals (Monodon monoceros) from West Greenland". Science of The Total Environment. 331 (1–3): 83–105. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2004.03.041. ISSN 0048-9697.
  80. ^ a b Laidre, Kristin L.; Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter (10 February 2011). "Life in the lead: extreme densities of narwhals (Monodon monoceros) in the offshore pack ice". Marine Ecology Progress Series. 423: 269–278. Bibcode:2011MEPS..423..269L. doi:10.3354/meps08941. ISSN 0171-8630.
  81. ^ Louis, Marie; Skovrind, Mikkel; Samaniego Castruita, Jose Alfredo; Garilao, Cristina; Kaschner, Kristin; Gopalakrishnan, Shyam; Haile, James S.; Lydersen, Christian; Kovacs, Kit M.; Garde, Eva; Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter; Postma, Lianne; Ferguson, Steven H.; Willerslev, Eske; Lorenzen, Eline D. (29 April 2020). "Influence of past climate change on phylogeography and demographic history of narwhals, Monodon monoceros". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 287 (1925): 20192964. doi:10.1098/rspb.2019.2964. ISSN 0962-8452. PMC 7211449. PMID 32315590.
  82. ^ Nielsen, Martin Reinhardt (1 August 2009). "Is climate change causing the increasing narwhal (Monodon monoceros) catches in Smith Sound, Greenland?". Polar Research. 28 (2): 238–245. doi:10.3402/polar.v28i2.6115. ISSN 1751-8369.
  83. ^ Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter; Hansen, Rikke Guldborg; Westdal, Kristin; Reeves, Randall R.; Mosbech, Anders (February 2013). "Narwhals and seismic exploration: is seismic noise increasing the risk of ice entrapments?". Biological Conservation. 158: 50–54. Bibcode:2013BCons.158...50H. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2012.08.005. ISSN 0006-3207.
  84. ^ Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter; Blackwell, Susanna B.; Tervo, Outi M.; Samson, Adeline L.; Garde, Eva; Hansen, Rikke G.; Ngô, Manh Cu’ò’ng; Conrad, Alexander S.; Trinhammer, Per; Schmidt, Hans C.; Sinding, Mikkel-Holger S.; Williams, Terrie M.; Ditlevsen, Susanne (2021). "Behavioral response study on seismic airgun and vessel exposures in narwhals". Frontiers in Marine Science. 8. doi:10.3389/fmars.2021.658173. ISSN 2296-7745.
  85. ^ Bastian, Dawn Elaine; Mitchell, Judy K. (2004). Handbook of Native American Mythology. Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 54–55. ISBN 1-85109-533-0.
  86. ^ a b c Pluskowski, Aleksander (January 2004). "Narwhals or unicorns? Exotic animals as material culture in medieval Europe". European Journal of Archaeology. 7 (3): 291–313. doi:10.1177/1461957104056505. ISSN 1461-9571. S2CID 162878182.
  87. ^ Daston, Lorraine; Park, Katharine (2001). Wonders and the Order of Nature, 1150–1750. Zone Books. ISBN 0-942299-91-4.
  88. ^ Dugmore, Andrew J.; Keller, Christian; McGovern, Thomas H. (6 February 2007). "Norse Greenland settlement: reflections on climate change, trade, and the contrasting fates of human settlements in the North Atlantic islands". Arctic Anthropology. 44 (1): 12–36. doi:10.1353/arc.2011.0038. ISSN 0066-6939. PMID 21847839. S2CID 10030083.
  89. ^ Dectot, Xavier (October 2018). "When ivory came from the seas. On some traits of the trade of raw and carved sea-mammal ivories in the Middle Ages". Anthropozoologica. 53 (1): 159–174. doi:10.5252/anthropozoologica2018v53a14. ISSN 0761-3032. S2CID 135259639.
  90. ^ Schmölcke, Ulrich (December 2022). "What about exotic species? Significance of remains of strange and alien animals in the Baltic Sea region, focusing on the period from the Viking Age to high medieval times (800–1300 CE)". Heritage. 5 (4): 3864–3880. doi:10.3390/heritage5040199. ISSN 2571-9408.
  91. ^ Châtelet-Lange, Liliane; Franciscond, Renate (March 1968). "The Grotto of the unicorn and the harden of the Villa Di Castello". The Art Bulletin. 50 (1): 51–58. doi:10.1080/00043079.1968.10789120. ISSN 0004-3079.
  92. ^ Nweeia, Martin T. (15 February 2024). "Biology and cultural Importance of the narwhal". Annual Review of Animal Biosciences. 12: 187–208. doi:10.1146/annurev-animal-021122-112307. ISSN 2165-8110. PMID 38358838.
  93. ^ Sherman, Josepha (2015). Storytelling: An Encyclopedia of Mythology and Folklore. Routledge. p. 476. ISBN 978-1-317-45938-5. Archived from the original on 28 September 2023. Retrieved 18 September 2023.
  94. ^ Regard, Frédéric, ed. (2014), "Ice and Eskimos: Dealing With a New Otherness", The Quest for the Northwest Passage: Knowledge, Nation and Empire, 1576–1806, Pickering & Chatto, ISBN 978-1-84893-270-8, retrieved 13 February 2024
  95. ^ Duffin, Christopher J. (January 2017). "'Fish', fossil and fake: medicinal unicorn horn". Geological Society, London, Special Publications. 452 (1): 211–259. Bibcode:2017GSLSP.452..211D. doi:10.1144/SP452.16. ISSN 0305-8719. S2CID 133366872.
  96. ^ Wexler, Philip (2017). Toxicology in the Middle Ages and Renaissance. Academic Press. pp. 101–102. ISBN 978-0-12-809559-1.
  97. ^ Rochelandet, Brigitte (2003). Monstres et merveilles de Franche-Comté: fées, fantômes et dragons (in French). Editions Cabédita. p. 131. ISBN 978-2-88295-400-8.
  98. ^ Robertson, W. G. Aitchison (1926). "The Use of the Unicorn's Horn, Coral and Stones in Medicine". Annals of Medical History. 8 (3): 240–248. ISSN 0743-3131. PMC 7946245. PMID 33944492.
  99. ^ Reeves, Randall R.; Heide-Jørgensen, Mads P. (22 April 1994). "Commercial aspect, of the exploitation of narwhal (Monodon monoceros) in Greenland, with emphasis on tusk exports". Meddelelser om Grønland. Bioscience. 39: 119–134. doi:10.7146/mogbiosci.v39.142540. ISSN 2794-6819.

Further reading[edit]

Retrieved Sat, 25 May 2024 07:47:14 (GMT), from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia ().